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Presented to: By: Dennis H. Whitley Date: January 31, 2013 Federal Aviation Administration North Florida FSDO Loss of Control Take Off and Landings Stabilized.

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Presentation on theme: "Presented to: By: Dennis H. Whitley Date: January 31, 2013 Federal Aviation Administration North Florida FSDO Loss of Control Take Off and Landings Stabilized."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presented to: By: Dennis H. Whitley Date: January 31, 2013 Federal Aviation Administration North Florida FSDO Loss of Control Take Off and Landings Stabilized Approaches Following Procedures Tampa Designate Pilot Examiners

2 2 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 A Crosswind Accident? The pilot lost control after the aircraft touched down on one wheel, swerved sharply, hit several runway lights, left the runway, and came to rest in the airport boundary fence. The winds were at 60-degree crosswind to the runway at 32 kts with gusts to 40. What caused this accident?

3 3 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 A Crosswind Accident? In most cases we will find that inadequate training was a major contributing factor. Even in cases of outside influences or mechanical intervention, training and knowing what to do during an abnormal situation is often overlooked. What caused this accident?

4 4 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Approach and Landing Accidents TRAINING SUGGESTIONS Situational Awareness – Contingency plan for every takeoff and landing. “Brief” the landing/go-around procedure, including flaps and airspeeds. Review Graphs and Tables in the POH. Teaching the Stabilized Approach - Profile Practice emergency/evacuation procedures.

5 5 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 We have a LOSS of Control Problem! This airplane lost control on landing when the pilot flared too high and stalled in West Texas. He attempted to taxi the airplane to the ramp, and it worked until the nose wheel collapsed.

6 6 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Loss of Control This “new” private pilot LOST CONTROL when he attempted to land on a public highway to look at an auction site, near Pecos, Texas. The crosswind caught him and put him into the ditch and a fence.

7 7 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 What Part do you play in all of this??

8 8 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Any Landing You Can Walk Away From? Landing It’s a Matter of Risk Management

9 9 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Percent of Accidents by Phase of Flight 17% 54%

10 10 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Take Off Planning and Briefings Plan your take off. –Technical Information Runway Length Density Altitude Weight and Balance Contingencies Alternates Performance What If’s Other factors include obstructions, night operations, runway conditions and weather.

11 11 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Take Off Planning and Briefings Brief your take off. –Passengers and Crew (Including SP Ops) Passenger Requirements Departure procedure Crew Duties Call Outs Abort Procedure Emergency Procedures after takeoff What do we do in case of ???

12 12 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Approach and Landing Accidents Over half of all accidents occur during these phases. The leading accident factor for takeoffs and landings is loss of control (30.2 % of takeoff accidents and 32.8 % of landing accidents). Other factors include obstructions, night operations, runway conditions and weather.

13 13 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Landings “Can you identify the Risks?”

14 14 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Glide Path/Angle

15 15 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Approach and Landing Accidents Major Factors To Consider –Lack of Situational Awareness - CFIT –Nonstabilized Approaches –Wind (Direction and Velocity) –Obstructions –Weather – Turbulence,Wind Shear, Microburst –Runway (Condition, Length, Slope) –Night (Decreased Visibility)

16 16 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Why Focus on Landings? Statistics indicate:  46% Of accidents occurred during the Landing phase of Flight.

17 17 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Landings Good Approach = Good Landing Bad Approach = Bad Landing

18 18 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Landings Good Approach = Good Landing Bad Approach = Bad Landing Period End of Statement !!!!

19 19 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Stabilized Approach FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

20 20 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Stabilized Approach FAA Order , volume 4, chapter 2, section 3, paragraph 511 discusses stabilized approaches. Defines a stabilized approach as maintaining: –Stable speed, –Stable descent rate, –Stable vertical flight paths, –Stable configuration. VFR- Below 500 ft IFR- Below 1000 ft

21 21 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Stabilized Approach Proper airspeed for the segment of the approach Correct flight path Correct aircraft configuration for the phase of flight Appropriate power setting for aircraft configuration Normal angle and rate of descent for the type of approach Minor corrections for pitch and power required to maintain stabilized approach Normal bracketing (+/-5°) used to correct for lateral navigation deviations

22 22 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Stabilized Approach The Stabilized VFR Approach –On Glide Path, On Airspeed Profile –Approach Segment Airspeeds (Vref) –Downwind –Base –Final –Short Final

23 23 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 IAP Rate of Descent Table Speed G.S

24 24 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 V-Ref – Approach Speeds Vref = Landing Reference Speed at a point 50 feet above the landing threshold. It is not less than 1.3 times the stall speed in the normal landing configuration. In simple terms.... your final approach speed.

25 25 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 V-Ref – Approach Speeds FAR Part 23 –Single engine and Multi Engine < 6000 lbs stall speed =61 kias Vref=1.3 VSo 1.3 x 61= 79.3 kias C-172 Vso=51 Vref (1.3x51) =66.3 PA-32 Vso=58 Vref (1.3*58) =75.4 Meaning-The last 500 ft of descent should approx. 70 Kias.

26 26 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 V-Ref – Inst. Approach Speeds Aless than C182 - TB20 - C208 - BE35 B B190 - E120 - AT42 - SF34 AT72- B350 - M20T - DHC8 C A320 - B717 - B737 - FA50 B757 - CRJ7 - C130 - LR45 D A225 - A340 - B777 - DC10 MD11 - A330 - L101 - IL86 E CON

27 27 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Stabilized Approach Do not change flap position after crossing the Final Approach Fix until the runway is in sight and landing is assured. If the requirements for landing from instrument conditions are not met, a missed approach must be executed.

28 28 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Landing - Common Errors  Un-stabilized approach.  Failure to allow enough room on final to set up the approach, necessitating an overly steep approach and high sink rate.  Too low on approach resulting in possibly landing short.  Too low an airspeed on final resulting in inability to flare properly and landing hard. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

29 29 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Landing - Common Errors (continued)  Too high an airspeed resulting in floating on round out.  Prematurely reducing power to idle on round out resulting in hard landing.  Touchdown with excessive airspeed.  Excessive and/or unnecessary braking after touchdown.  Failure to maintain directional control. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

30 30 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 What about the Crosswind??? Technique? –Whether “kick or crab”, proper runway alignment must be maintained!!! –Upwind wing lowered and runway center line alignment maintained using proper control inputs for the crosswind conditions –REMEMBER…

31 31 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Crosswind Landings

32 32 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Crosswind Landings Common Errors  Unstabilized approach.  Attempting to land in crosswinds that exceed the airplane’s maximum demonstrated crosswind component.  Inadequate compensation for wind drift on the turn from base leg to final approach, resulting in undershooting or overshooting.  Inadequate compensation for wind drift on final approach. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

33 33 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Crosswind Landings Common Errors  Failure to compensate for increased drag during sideslip resulting in excessive sink rate and/or too low an airspeed.  Touchdown while drifting.  Excessive airspeed on touchdown resulting in loss of control or excessive braking.  Failure to apply appropriate flight control inputs during rollout. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

34 34 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Don’t let the conditions exceed your limits … if you start to get that “uncomfortable” feeling… GO AROUND!!

35 35 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Go Around From Rejected Landing FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

36 36 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Go Around Common Errors  Pitch attitude increased excessively resulting in a stall  Applying only partial power  Failure to reconfigure the aircraft (gear and Flaps) for climb  Retracting the flaps too quickly  Elevator trim (excessive forward pressures) FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

37 37 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Approach and Landing Accidents MSA figures are extremely helpful!

38 38 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Approach and Landing Accidents landing airport Know altitude and distance from Be aware of your DA or MDA Pay attention to the MSA Know altitude and distance from Be aware of your DA or MDA Pay attention to the MSA

39 39 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Approach and Landing Accidents LESSONS LEARNED A current pilot and an airworthy aircraft can get into trouble. The importance of preflight planning and preparation. Night operations require extra planning. Understand flap configurations. Manage Your Focus of Attention. Always fly the aircraft!

40 40 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Approach and Landing Accidents TRAINING SUGGESTIONS Situational Awareness – Contingency plan for every takeoff and landing. “Brief” the landing/go-around procedure, including flaps and airspeeds. Review Graphs and Tables in the POH. Teaching the Stabilized Approach - Profile Practice emergency/evacuation procedures.

41 41 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Approach and Landing Accidents Fly some Simulation Time Practice Approaches Practice Missed Approaches Practice Emergency Options Practice Equipment Expectations Practice-Practice-Practice

42 42 Federal Aviation Administration DPE Workshop Jan. 31, 2013 Thanks for Having Me!!!


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