Presentation on theme: "North Florida FSDO Loss of Control Take Off and Landings"— Presentation transcript:
1 North Florida FSDO Loss of Control Take Off and Landings Stabilized ApproachesFollowing ProceduresTampa Designate Pilot Examiners
2 A Crosswind Accident?The pilot lost control after the aircraft touched down on one wheel, swerved sharply, hit several runway lights, left the runway, and came to rest in the airport boundary fence. The winds were at 60-degree crosswind to the runway at 32 kts with gusts to 40.What caused this accident?Would the wind be a problem for the average pilot?Point out that while loosing control in the crosswind is the obvious situation, it may have been the pilot’s decision to attempt a landing in the extreme crosswind may have also been a factor.Would you fly in these conditions? Would you conduct a dual flight (student flying) in these conditions?Inspire discussion by asking questions like, “What were the pilot’s alternatives? Another runway? Another airport?”Would your students know to consider alternatives?
3 A Crosswind Accident?In most cases we will find that inadequate training was a major contributing factor. Even in cases of outside influences or mechanical intervention, training and knowing what to do during an abnormal situation is often overlooked.What caused this accident?Would the wind be a problem for the average pilot?Point out that while loosing control in the crosswind is the obvious situation, it may have been the pilot’s decision to attempt a landing in the extreme crosswind may have also been a factor.Would you fly in these conditions? Would you conduct a dual flight (student flying) in these conditions?Inspire discussion by asking questions like, “What were the pilot’s alternatives? Another runway? Another airport?”Would your students know to consider alternatives?
4 Approach and Landing Accidents TRAINING SUGGESTIONSSituational Awareness – Contingency plan for every takeoff and landing.“Brief” the landing/go-around procedure, including flaps and airspeeds.Review Graphs and Tables in the POH.Teaching the Stabilized Approach - ProfilePractice emergency/evacuation procedures.
5 We have a LOSS of Control Problem! This airplane lost control on landing when the pilot flared too high and stalled in West Texas.He attempted to taxi the airplane to the ramp, and it worked until the nose wheel collapsed.Read and Discuss
6 Loss of ControlThis “new” private pilot LOST CONTROL when he attempted to land on a public highway to look at an auction site, near Pecos, Texas.The crosswind caught him and put him into the ditch and a fence.
7 What Part do you play in all of this?? As the CFI/DPE, you play a major function in the ability to help reduce the GA fatal accident rate.
8 Any Landing You Can Walk Away From? Landing It’s a Matter of Risk ManagementWe’ve all heard this little adage before, “any landing you can walk away from is a good one” however, I don’t quite agree…These folks walked away from this landing, but for it to be a good landing I think there is more…
9 Percent of Accidents by Phase of Flight 17%54%This graph shows us the percentage of accidents, by phase of flight. And the important numbers on this graph are that almost twenty percent of accidents happen during take off and departure. But even more importantly, over half, fifty-four percent of accidents happen in the approach and landing phase of flights.We have the majority of the problems during the take off and landing. And there are quite a few reasons why. Of course we are closer to the ground, it’s a lot busier workload time, there are lot more airplanes around. There’s a lot more information for us to be perceiving, processing-and a lot more performance or response activities required from us during take off and landing.
10 Take Off Planning and Briefings Plan your take off.Technical InformationRunway LengthDensity AltitudeWeight and BalanceContingenciesAlternatesPerformanceWhat If’sOther factors include obstructions, night operations, runway conditions and weather.
11 Take Off Planning and Briefings Brief your take off.Passengers and Crew (Including SP Ops)Passenger RequirementsDeparture procedureCrew DutiesCall OutsAbort ProcedureEmergency Procedures after takeoffWhat do we do in case of ???
12 Approach and Landing Accidents Over half of all accidents occur during these phases.The leading accident factor for takeoffs and landings is loss of control (30.2 % of takeoff accidents and 32.8 % of landing accidents).Other factors include obstructions, night operations, runway conditions and weather.
13 Landings “Can you identify the Risks?” Using the model from risk management in the TO slides, see if your audience can identify the risks associated with landing at this airport.
15 Approach and Landing Accidents Major Factors To ConsiderLack of Situational Awareness - CFITNonstabilized ApproachesWind (Direction and Velocity)ObstructionsWeather – Turbulence,Wind Shear, MicroburstRunway (Condition, Length, Slope)Night (Decreased Visibility)
16 Why Focus on Landings? Statistics indicate: 46% Of accidents occurred during the Landing phase of Flight.Statistics indicate 40.3% of GA accidents occur during the LANDING phase of flight.The pilot of this P210 attempted to land going too fast. With a 17 knot tailwind the airplane was allowed to touchdown in the last 1/3 of the runway, went off the side of the runway, struck some lights, signs and fence, went into a ditch and came to rest on an access road just north of the airport.Interesting point, this pilot thought something like this would never happen to him. A rejected landing would have been the right choice.16
17 LandingsGood Approach = Good LandingBad Approach = Bad Landing
18 Landings Good Approach = Good Landing Bad Approach = Bad Landing Period End of Statement !!!!
19 FAA-H-8083-3A Airplane Flying Handbook Stabilized ApproachAirspeed control- ElevatorRate/ angle of descent controlled by PowerEmphasize that a stabilized approach consists of : airplane properly configured (gear, flaps, and power) , Maintaining extended centerline on final and desired approach speed for the weight* ( 3-5 degree glide path to a predetermined touchdown point ( within the first 1/3 of the runway).FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook19
20 Stabilized ApproachFAA Order , volume 4, chapter 2, section 3, paragraph 511 discusses stabilized approaches.Defines a stabilized approach as maintaining:Stable speed,Stable descent rate,Stable vertical flight paths,Stable configuration. VFR- Below 500 ftIFR- Below 1000 ft
21 Stabilized Approach Proper airspeed for the segment of the approach Correct flight pathCorrect aircraft configuration for the phase of flightAppropriate power setting for aircraft configurationNormal angle and rate of descent for the type of approachMinor corrections for pitch and power required to maintain stabilized approachNormal bracketing (+/-5°) used to correct for lateral navigation deviations
22 Stabilized Approach The Stabilized VFR Approach On Glide Path, On AirspeedProfile –Approach Segment Airspeeds (Vref)DownwindBaseFinalShort Final
23 IAP Rate of Descent Table Speed3045607590105120135150G.S.21602102653203704254755302.513020033039546559566532404805556357157953.5185280650740835925431584595510604.53551075119056601325
24 V-Ref – Approach Speeds Vref = Landing Reference Speed at a point 50 feet above the landing threshold.It is not less than 1.3 times the stall speed in the normal landing configuration. In simple terms.... your final approach speed.
25 V-Ref – Approach Speeds FAR Part 23Single engine and Multi Engine < 6000 lbs stall speed =61 kiasVref=1.3 VSo1.3 x 61= 79.3 kiasC-172 Vso=51Vref (1.3x51) =66.3PA-32 Vso=58Vref (1.3*58) =75.4Meaning-The last 500 ft of descent should approx. 70 Kias.
27 Stabilized ApproachDo not change flap position after crossing the Final Approach Fix until the runway is in sight and landing is assured. If the requirements for landing from instrument conditions are not met, a missed approach must be executed.
28 Landing - Common Errors Un-stabilized approach.Failure to allow enough room on final to set up the approach, necessitating an overly steep approach and high sink rate.Too low on approach resulting in possibly landing short.Too low an airspeed on final resulting in inability to flare properly and landing hard.Read the Slide and DiscussEmphasize the need for total airspeed control.FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook28
29 Landing - Common Errors (continued) Too high an airspeed resulting in floating on round out.Prematurely reducing power to idle on round out resulting in hard landing.Touchdown with excessive airspeed.Excessive and/or unnecessary braking after touchdown.Failure to maintain directional control.Read the Slide and DiscussFAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook29
30 What about the Crosswind??? Technique?Whether “kick or crab”, proper runway alignment must be maintained!!!Upwind wing lowered and runway center line alignment maintained using proper control inputs for the crosswind conditionsREMEMBER…Read and Discuss
31 Crosswind LandingsThis is one of the most common areas of difficulty for most pilotsThere are two basic techniques, the crabbing method and wing low or “side slip” method. Really the crabbing method is more suited to large aircraft. They have a lot more mass and when the rudder is used to take the crab out it takes more time for the aircraft to start moving off centerline. Whereas with a light aircraft it will move off the centerline almost immediately. The wing low or sideslip method is almost always a better technique.As the Speed decreases so does the effectiveness of the flight controls. Many pilots also fail to continue to add more aileron control into the wind as the aircraft slows down on roll out. This can contribute to a loss of directional control.Do you use the wind sock? Think about partial or no flap landing. Know your crosswind performance / limitations.31
32 Crosswind Landings Common Errors Unstabilized approach.Attempting to land in crosswinds that exceed the airplane’s maximum demonstrated crosswind component.Inadequate compensation for wind drift on the turn from base leg to final approach, resulting in undershooting or overshooting.Inadequate compensation for wind drift on final approach.Read the Slide and discussFAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook32
33 Crosswind Landings Common Errors Failure to compensate for increased drag during sideslip resulting in excessive sink rate and/or too low an airspeed.Touchdown while drifting.Excessive airspeed on touchdown resulting in loss of control or excessive braking.Failure to apply appropriate flight control inputs during rollout.Read the Slide and discussFAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook33
34 Don’t let the conditions exceed your limits … if you start to get that “uncomfortable” feeling… GO AROUND!!Read and Discuss
35 Go Around From Rejected Landing Read the Slide and discussYOU NEED TO MAINTAIN PROFICIENCY IN THIS MANEUVER. If it gets outside of your abilities or the capabilities of the airplane, then GO AROUND!FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook35
36 Go Around Common Errors Pitch attitude increased excessively resulting in a stallApplying only partial powerFailure to reconfigure the aircraft (gear and Flaps) for climbRetracting the flaps too quicklyElevator trim (excessive forward pressures)Read the Slide and discussDon’t you dare do this too late!!! Make a decision to go around! In a retractable gear airplane, leave the gear alone if you do not need the climb performance. Too many people have executed a go around only to follow it up with a gear-up landing.FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook36
37 Approach and Landing Accidents MSA figures are extremely helpful!The Minimum Safe Altitude, MSA, figures published on VFR charts and approach plates can be extremely helpful in these situations. Surrounding terrain, and/or obstacle heights are also listed.
38 Approach and Landing Accidents Know altitude and distance fromBe aware of your DA or MDAPay attention to the MSAEvery airport with a published approach procedure has a minimum sector altitude (MSA) printed on the chart. The MSAs are 1,000 feet above all obstacles in that sector within 25 miles of the facility, or of the LOM in ILS procedure.landing airport
39 Approach and Landing Accidents LESSONS LEARNEDA current pilot and an airworthy aircraft can get into trouble.The importance of preflight planning and preparation.Night operations require extra planning.Understand flap configurations.Manage Your Focus of Attention.Always fly the aircraft!
40 Approach and Landing Accidents TRAINING SUGGESTIONSSituational Awareness – Contingency plan for every takeoff and landing.“Brief” the landing/go-around procedure, including flaps and airspeeds.Review Graphs and Tables in the POH.Teaching the Stabilized Approach - ProfilePractice emergency/evacuation procedures.
41 Approach and Landing Accidents Fly some Simulation TimePractice ApproachesPractice Missed ApproachesPractice Emergency OptionsPractice Equipment ExpectationsPractice-Practice-Practice