Presentation on theme: "Pre-Solo Training Program"— Presentation transcript:
1Pre-Solo Training Program Flight Briefing: Lesson 6Takeoffs and Landings /Crosswind TheoryIn cooperation with Mid Island Air Service, Inc. Brookhaven, NY (Michael Bellenir, CFI)
2Lesson 6 ObjectivesDuring this briefing, you will continue to develop your skills by practicing takeoffs and landings. You will review and practice traffic pattern procedures, flying a rectangular course, radio communications, takeoffs, and landings.Upon completion of this briefing, you will fly a standard traffic pattern, and practice normal and crosswind takeoffs and landings.
3TakeoffsTo make a good takeoff, a pilot must consider several factors.Aircraft performanceWind/WeatherAirplane handling characteristics
4Aircraft Performance Takeoff Distance Climb Rate Density altitudeWeightWindSurfaceClimb RateAffected by pilot technique
5Effect of WindHeadwind component will reduce takeoff distance and increase climb gradient; tailwind will increase distance and decrease climb gradient.Crosswind component will compromise directional control.
6Effect of CrosswindA cross wind will cause the airplane to try to turn into the wind. This tendency is caused by air pushing on the side of the vertical stabilizer and is called “weather-vaning.”The stronger the wind, the more pronounced the weather-vaning tendency.Positioning the controls properly during taxi will minimize the possible negative effects of a strong wind.
7Position of Flight Controls with Crosswind on Taxi Wind from front: Turn into windWind from behind: Dive with the wind.
9Crosswind Correction on Taxi Positioning of the flight controls keeps the wind going over the top of the airplane, helping maintain directional control and preventing the wind from lifting a wing (could flip plane over if wind strong enough).
10Wind Correction on Taxi Because takeoffs are performed into the wind, taxiing to the runway usually involves a tailwind component. Keep the engine RPM as low as possible but not less than 1400 RPM!
11The TakeoffTo make a good takeoff, it is important to use good flying technique.Lift the nose wheel as soon as possible, keep the nose wheel slightly off of the pavement and hold the airplane in a slightly nose-up “wheelie” attitude.Not brining up the nose wheel early in the takeoff roll is stressful on the nose gear and results in a bumpy takeoff roll.
12The TakeoffWith the nose wheel up in the air, the left turning tendencies of the airplane will be more pronounced. You will need right rudder to correct for the left turning tendencies.Don’t be timid about applying rudder pressure to maintain directional control. Use whatever firm but steady force is required to keep the airplane on the runway centerline.
13The TakeoffThe airplane will lift off the ground relatively quickly and should be flying within a few seconds after lifting the nose.At first the airspeed will be quite slow. Keep the nose low enough for the airspeed to accelerate to the normal climb speed (60 knots). Upon reaching 60 knots, pitch the airplane for a constant airspeed climb.
14The Initial ClimbOnce the airplane is in the air and you have accelerated to 60 knots, continue to climb straight ahead.Once you’ve gained some altitude, are under good control with the airspeed at 60, and have a good climb rate, you can retract the flaps.With the flaps up, the recommended climb speed increases from 60 knots to 70 knots.Pitch the airplane for a 70 knot climb.
15Takeoff and Initial Climb Complete climb checklist climbing through 1,000 feet AGLOnce clear of obstacles and climbing, retract flaps and climb at 70 KIASClimb at Vy (60 KIAS)Airplane will fly at proper speedRaise nose-wheel/right rudder for directional controlFull Power
17Crosswind TakeoffPerforming a takeoff with a crosswind, use the same technique as you would normally. If a crosswind is present, start the takeoff roll with ailerons into wind.This will prevent wind from getting under wing and compromising directional control.As the airplane accelerates, the amount of aileron required will decrease. Keep some deflection but bring the ailerons closer to neutral.Use the rudder to stay on centerline
20Crosswind Climb OutOnce airborne, let the airplane turn into wind (weathervane) as required to track out on runway centerline. The airplane should be in wings-level, coordinated flight.
21Turning CrosswindTurn crosswind around 500 feet AGL (traffic permitting). At Lock Haven, that’s between 1000 and 1100 feet on the altimeter.Keep climbing at between 60 and 70 knots.At the proper distance (about ¼ mile) from the runway, turn downwind.Level off into traffic pattern altitude 1,600’ MSL (either on crosswind or downwind, whenever you get to altitude).
22DownwindOn downwind, maintain an altitude of 1,000 feet AGL (1,600 MSL)Reduce the power to 4000 rpm, apply flaps15, and trim for a steady cruise at about 60 knots.You can adjust your speed as necessary for conditions or for other traffic.Abeam the touchdown point, reduce the power significantly and start to glide. You will maintain 60 knots until the flare.
23BaseTurn base when the touchdown point is equidistant behind the wingtip and the tail (or when other traffic on final is well clear past the wingtip). Increase flaps to 30 degrees.Note the altitude and distance to the airport, if you seem too far to glide, add a little power. If you seem too close, reduce power to idle, maintain speed, and consider applying full flaps (but only when the runway is assured.Target turning 1/4 mile final at about 500 feet AGL and stabilized at 60 knots.
24Final Approach Keep the airspeed at 60 knots. If the airplane appears to be on glide path or slightly high, reduce the power to idle.Set the flaps if necessary.Maintain 60 knots.If the airplane appears slightly low or below glide path, increase power slightly.Did I mention maintain 60 knots?
25The Landing Fly the airplane down the runway centerline at 60 knots. As the airplane gets to within about one wingspan above the ground, shift your view past the end of the runway. Look way out at the horizon, and use your peripheral vision to detect changes in altitude.Hold a constant, slightly nose up pitch, all the way until touchdown.
26The LandingOnce the airplane contacts the ground, keep the nose up. It is important to keep the nose up in the air as long as possible.As the airplane slows, use rudder pressure as necessary to keep the airplane on centerline.Keep the stick back. As the airplane slows, you will increase back-pressure to hold a constant pitch angle. With the stick all the way back, the nosewheel will eventually settle gently to the runway. Keep the stick back. Make sure the nose wheel is straight at touchdown.Slow down straight ahead. Do not apply brakes until the nosewheel comes down. Do not attempt to make a fast turn off of the runway. Once you are at a safe taxi speed, then you can clear the runway at the next opportunity.
27Approach to LandingStabilized approach at 60 KIAS. Flaps and power as required.Set flaps, airspeed ~60 KIASLine up with runway centerline on about 1/4 mile final at 500 ft. AGL, airspeed 60 KIAS. Set flaps as required
29Stabilized Approach Stabilized Approach is very important! To have a stabilized approach you need to be tracking runway centerline, have the proper speed (60 knots), be on glide path, and have the airplane properly configured for landing and under control.Once the approach is stabilized, you will be able to see where the airplane is going to touch down. This is called the “aiming point.”
30Aiming PointThe aiming point is where the airplane will appear to hit the ground (where glide path meets the surface). The aiming point will not have any relative movement.Points that the airplane is undershooting will appear to move up away from the airplanePoints that the airplane is overshooting will appear to be moving down and underneath the airplane.
33Aiming Point/FlareThe airplane will appear like it is going to touch down at the aiming point, and it will if you do not flare.The flare, or round-out, is the transition from gliding to the runway at approach speed, to proper landing attitude and touchdown speed.The flare is accomplished by applying gentle back pressure on the stick at the proper time, and keeping the nose up as the airplane nears touchdown.
36Flare/Round-out Look Here! Looking down the runway will give you a much better idea of your attitude!Looking too close to the airplane will usually cause the pilot to flare late, not flare enough, and flare too quickly. (too little, too fast, too late = too hard a landing!)
37Crosswind LandingsLanding with a crosswind requires the same procedures and technique as a normal landing.Track down the runway centerline (turn into wind).In the flare, bank slightly into the wind and use rudder to orient the airplane parallel with the runway.It sometimes helps to bank into the wind and use rudder to straighten out before the flare while you are learning. You will get better with experience.Have good posture! Sit upright and square in your seat, keep your head square to your shoulders. This will help you determine exactly where the airplane is pointing.
38Crosswind Approach and Landing: Two Different Techniques The Slip: Bank into wind and orient airplane parallel with runway prior to touchdown (use rudder)The Crab: Approach pointed into wind to track centerline.
40What to do if things go wrong. If something doesn’t seem right on takeoff, you have any control problems, suspect an engine malfunction, or have an engine failure, simply close the throttle (full idle) and stop straight ahead.If the airplane is already airborne but there is still adequate runway ahead, you can land straight ahead.
41What to do if things go wrong. Landing an airplane involves too many variables to describe. Especially at first, don’t be surprised if it takes several attempts to get a good approach.If you’re not satisfied with the approach, if your touchdown will not occur within the first 1/3 of the runway, or if the approach is not stabilized on final, simply perform a go-around and try again. We don’t charge extra for go-arounds!
42Review Questions Define “weather-vaning.” How does a headwind component impact takeoff distance and climb gradient?Where should you be looking during the landing flare?What should you do if problems develop during the takeoff roll?What should you do if your approach is not stabilized on final?What should you do if you don’t touch down on the first 1/3 of the runway?Write down your answers before continuing to next slide
43Review Answers Define “weather-vaning.” Tendency of an aircraft on the ground to turn into a crosswindHow does a headwind component impact takeoff distance and climb gradient?Decreases takeoff distance; increases climb gradientWhere should you be looking during the landing flare?Toward the far end of the runwayWhat should you do if problems develop during the takeoff roll?Abort the takeoff if sufficient runway remainsWhat should you do if your approach is not stabilized on final?Go around!What should you do if you don’t touch down on the first 1/3 of the runway?Review any missed questions before continuing to today’s flight.
44On Today’s FlightWe’ll practice normal or crosswind takeoffs. Try to make the takeoff as smooth as possible.Fly a normal traffic patternPractice normal or crosswind landings. Get the approaches stabilized, start the flare at the proper time, look all the way down the runway, and hold the nose up as long as possible.Thanks to Mid Island Air Service, Inc. Brookhaven, NY (Michael Bellenir, CFI)