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AIRCRAFT HANDLING Part 6 General Flying. AIRCRAFTSERVICINGPLATFORM 2 22 TAXIWAY General Flying Before taxiing onto the runway a pilot must: Complete his.

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Presentation on theme: "AIRCRAFT HANDLING Part 6 General Flying. AIRCRAFTSERVICINGPLATFORM 2 22 TAXIWAY General Flying Before taxiing onto the runway a pilot must: Complete his."— Presentation transcript:

1 AIRCRAFT HANDLING Part 6 General Flying

2 AIRCRAFTSERVICINGPLATFORM 2 22 TAXIWAY General Flying Before taxiing onto the runway a pilot must: Complete his Vital Actions Receive permission from the controller Check that the approach is clear Test the flying controls for motion & response

3 AIRCRAFTSERVICINGPLATFORM 2 22 TAXIWAY General Flying Taxiing for take-off, the pilot stops at the Holding Point, a white line across the taxiway, From here the pilot has a good view of the runway and final approach. Holding Position & Holding Board

4 AIRCRAFTSERVICINGPLATFORM 2 22 TAXIWAY General Flying At the holding point, light aircraft pilots turn their aircraft about 45 degrees into wind, to complete their pre take-off checks. Holding Position & Holding Board Wind

5 AIRCRAFTSERVICINGPLATFORM 2 22 TAXIWAY General Flying Close to the runway holding position is the runway controller’s caravan. His duty is to scrutinize aircraft about to take-off, checking for signs of danger such as loose panels, fuel leaks, oil leaks, and hydraulic leaks. Holding Position & Holding Board Wind

6 AIRCRAFTSERVICINGPLATFORM 2 22 TAXIWAY Take Offs Wind is a crucial factor affecting take-off, and take-off is normally made into the wind. As the aircraft lines up, any headwind along the runway will serve to shorten the take-off run. Wind

7 AIRCRAFTSERVICINGPLATFORM 2 22 TAXIWAY Take Offs A 20 knot headwind along the runway will be indicated as 20 kts on the aircraft’s airspeed indicator (ASI). 20kt wind

8 Take Offs G/S = 0kts IAS = 0kts G/S = 80kts IAS = 80kts 1 minute 500ft G/S = 90kts IAS = 90kts G/S = 0kts IAS = 20kts G/S = 60kts IAS = 80kts 1 minute 500ft G/S = 90kts IAS = 70kts 20kt wind No wind Wind velocity produces a steeper angle of climb after becoming airborne.

9 Take Offs The length of the take-off run depends on: All-up weight More weight means more lift, which means more speed gained by increasing run up. Amount of flap Higher co-efficient of lift enables the aircraft to take off at a lower Indicated Air Speed (IAS) Engine power Greater thrust means faster take off. Runway gradient Uphill = less acceleration = longer take-off.

10 Take Offs The length of the take-off run depends on: Runway surface Moisture, mud, grass, pot holes, all increase friction, decrease acceleration & increase take off. Air temperature High air temp reduces the air density reducing lift at a given airspeed. Thrust can be reduced by 4%- 5% per 5ºC above 15ºC. Airfield elevation Reduced air density at altitude increases the length of take-off.

11 The Circuit Wind The Circuit Downwind leg ‘Dead’ side Take offFinals Aircraft may be taking off and completing the circuit to practice landings. To reduce congestion and risk of collision, aircraft should enter the circuit in a planned and systematic manner.

12 The Circuit Wind Downwind leg ‘Dead’ side The pilot approaches the airfield, looking-out for other aircraft. After clearance, he will join overhead at a minimum height of 1000 ft above circuit height. The Circuit

13 1 8 0 Wind Downwind leg The pilot lets down on the ‘dead’ side in a wide curve, to reach the start of the downwind leg at circuit height. The Circuit ‘Dead’ side

14 The Circuit Wind Downwind leg Pre-landing checks are completed on the DOWNWIND leg The Circuit ‘Dead’ side

15 The Circuit Wind Downwind leg On approach, flaps are lowered to give a steeper descent for a set speed, a lower stalling speed and a better view over the nose of the aircraft. The Circuit ‘Dead’ side Finals

16 The Circuit Wind Downwind leg It must be remembered on approach that when the throttle is opened, a jet engine does not respond as quickly as a piston engine. The Circuit ‘Dead’ side Finals

17 The Landing To land the aircraft the pilot changes the descending path of the approach to one level with, and just above, the ground. This is known as the ‘round out’. Runway

18 The Landing The aircraft is then flown parallel to the ground, with increasing angle of attack and falling airspeed, until touchdown. This is known as the ‘hold-off’ or ‘float’. Runway

19 The Landing Landing a nose-wheel aircraft, the nose-wheel should be held off the ground until after the main wheels touch. Runway

20 The Landing With tail wheel aircraft, all three wheels should touch the ground together – a three point touchdown. Runway

21 What do light aircraft normally do at the runway holding point? Stop heading along the taxiway Turn downwind Turn into the wind Shut down their engines Check of Understanding

22 If an aircraft is positioned ready for take-off and the headwind is 30 kts, what will be indicated on the ASI? 30 kts Zero 20 kts 60 kts Check of Understanding

23 What is the opposite side of an aerodrome's downwind side known as? Approach side Dead side Finals side Upwind side Check of Understanding

24 When the throttle of a jet engine is opened the engine responds: Slower if the temperature is higher Slower than a piston engine Faster than a piston engine The same as a piston engine Check of Understanding

25 In the landing phase, What is the point called where the pilot changes the descending path of the approach to one level with, and just above, the ground is called: The round-up The hold-up The round-out The hold-off Check of Understanding

26 In the landing phase what is the period in which the aircraft is flown parallel to the ground with increasing angle of attack and falling airspeed to the touchdown point called? The hold-off or float The touch point or float The float point or touch The hold-up or float Check of Understanding

27 When landing a nose-wheel aircraft when should the nose-wheel touch the ground? After the main wheels Behind the main wheels With the main wheels Before the main wheels Check of Understanding

28 AIRCRAFT HANDLING End of Presentation


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