Presentation on theme: "Ex. 11 - Slow Flight Ex. 11 – Slow Flight. Ex. 11 - Slow Flight What you will learn: To recognize the signs of slow flight (flight at airspeeds between."— Presentation transcript:
Ex Slow Flight Ex. 11 – Slow Flight
Ex Slow Flight What you will learn: To recognize the signs of slow flight (flight at airspeeds between maximum endurance and stall) To safely maintain control of the aircraft in slow flight, in a variety of configurations To recover to normal airspeeds with minimal loss of altitude. OBJECTIVE
Ex Slow Flight Why learn this: To know what entry into slow flight feels like, to avoid accidentally entering it If slow flight is inadvertently entered, to be able to recover safely To become a better and more confident pilot. MOTIVATION Whats so bad about that?
Ex Slow Flight Links: LINKS Climbs, descents and flight at best endurance speed provided you with a chance to fly at reduced airspeeds You learned how changes in power and flap settings affect the flight You have been practicing good habits lookout carb heat check controlling yaw.
Ex Slow Flight Lets see how much you already know: Q What are the two types of drag, and how do they vary with airspeed and angle of attack? Q What effect do flaps have on lift, drag and visibility? Q How responsive are the control surfaces when the airplane is slowed down to best endurance airspeed? Q Sketch the power curve (power required to maintain level flight vs. airspeed) and mark best endurance airspeed on it. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE - TKT
Ex Slow Flight Theories and Definitions: The Power Curve Yaw in Slow Flight Flaps in Slow Flight. THEORIES & DEFINITIONS
Ex Slow Flight The Power Curve THEORIES & DEFINITIONS Minimum power is required for level flight at airspeed for best __________________________________ Slowing down further while maintaining altitude will require an increase in ______________________ Slow flight is flight between the airspeed for best endurance and stall speed. Back side of power curve Lower airspeeds require more power Front side of power curve Lower airspeeds require less power SLOW FLIGHT endurance power Power available
Ex Slow Flight Yaw in Slow Flight THEORIES & DEFINITIONS SLIPSTREAM ASYMMETRIC THRUST GYROSCOPIC PRECESSION TORQUE slipstream pushes tail to the right plane wants to yaw to the left spinning propeller acts as a gyroscope raising nose causes right-yawing tendency at high angles of attack, down-going blade has more bite and creates more thrust left-yawing tendency reaction to prop rotation causes roll to the left pilot corrects with right aileron, causes adverse yaw to the left SLOW FLIGHT Which rudder will you need in slow flight?
Ex Slow Flight Flaps in Slow Flight THEORIES & DEFINITIONS What effect do flaps have on lift? Drag? Visibility? ADVANTAGES OF FLAPS More lift stall speed reduced More nose-down attitude better forward visibility better engine cooling
Ex Slow Flight Procedures HASEL Check Slow Flight Entry During Recovery. PROCEDURES
Ex Slow Flight HASEL Check PROCEDURES H eight A rea S ecurity E ngine L ookout 2000 AGL not over built-up area harnesses, doors and windows secure baggage strapped down/stowed away Downwind Check oil temperature and pressure in the green primer in and locked, master on, mags on both circuit breakers in, ammeter needle right, light off carb heat hot, mixture rich fuel on, gauges show fuel flaps up brake pressure two 90 o turns or one 180 o turn - MINIMUM. In your practice area, what is this ASL?
Ex Slow Flight Slow Flight: Entry PROCEDURES HASEL check Reduce power to ~1600 rpm Maintain altitude with elevators Control yaw with rudder Flaps to 20 o once airspeed in the white arc Once flight at best endurance airspeed is established, raise the nose Add power to maintain altitude Control yaw with rudder Retrim for new airspeed. How will this affect airspeed and altitude?
Ex Slow Flight Slow Flight: During PROCEDURES Keep good look-out Maintain altitude with ___________________ Maintain airspeed with ___________________ Maintain heading with _______________________________________ Control yaw with ___________________ How does slow flight affect your visibility? elevators power ailerons + rudder How will control responsiveness be affected by slow flight? rudder.
Ex Slow Flight Slow Flight: Recovery PROCEDURES Keep good look-out Full power Carb heat cold Maintain altitude with elevators (forward pressure) Control yaw with rudder Flaps up in stages Once back to normal cruise airspeed, reduce power back to cruise Retrim.
Ex Slow Flight Considerations Control Responses controls are sluggish and mushy (one of slow flight signs) ailerons are affected the most elevator and rudder remain relatively effective due to propeller slipstream be prepared for a lot of adverse yaw due to propeller effects and aileron drag Stall at a certain airspeed the airplane will reach a critical angle of attack at which it will no longer be controllable and will start descending rapidly stall entry and recovery will be practiced in the next lesson. CONSIDERATIONS
Ex Slow Flight SAFETY ! Good look-out is crucial – visibility is reduced in slow flight ! Avoid practicing slow flight for prolonged periods of time – engine may overheat ! Max bank in slow flight = 30 o ! Careful control of airspeed: youre on the edge of stall! ! Yaw control is critical: what can stalling uncoordinated lead to? Why?
Ex Slow Flight Conclusion Practicing slow flight will improve your confidence and piloting skills, and help prepare you for mastering take- offs and landings Next lesson: we will slow the plane down even more – to the point of the stall! Read for next lesson: Ex. 12, Stalls CONCLUSION QUESTIONS?