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© HarperCollins Publishers 2010 Significance How did black South Africans oppose apartheid?
© HarperCollins Publishers 2010 Significance Objectives In this activity you will: Learn how important Nelson Mandela was in overthrowing apartheid.
© HarperCollins Publishers 2010 Significance How did black South Africans oppose apartheid? Act Apartheid Bantustans Boycott Civil disobedience You need to understand the terms below before you can understand how black South Africans resisted apartheid. Define the terms/concepts below, using slides 5-7, your textbook, the internet and a dictionary. Martyr Massacre Sanctions Torture
© HarperCollins Publishers 2010 Significance How did black South Africans oppose apartheid? Background In 1948, the Nationalist Party, led by D.F. Malan, won the elections and gained power in South Africa. Malan introduced apartheid, which was to keep whites and blacks separate. The aim of apartheid was to maintain white political and economic power. Malan passed a series of laws, which established apartheid, for example: –1949: Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act –1953: The Bantu Education Act (prevented blacks from attending schools with whites. Blacks received poor educational opportunities.) –1953: Separate Amenities Act (meant that different races were segregated in public. For example, blacks had separate ambulances.)
© HarperCollins Publishers 2010 Significance How did black South Africans oppose apartheid? Black South Africans used different methods to oppose apartheid. Read the following slides and complete this tasks in pairs: 1.Make a list of the different methods used by the opponents of apartheid. 2.Identify peaceful and violent methods. 3.Organise the methods into an order of importance. 4.Explain what you think was the most and least effective methods used by the opponents of apartheid. 5.Finally, working in pairs, write two speeches. One speech supports the use of violent methods against apartheid. The second speech condemns the use of violence and supports peaceful methods of protest. 6.Read out your speeches to the rest of the class and discuss as a class what you think was the most effective method used by the opponents of apartheid.
© HarperCollins Publishers 2010 Significance How did black South Africans oppose apartheid? One of the main organisations that opposed apartheid within South Africa was the African National Congress (ANC). It consisted of members from different races. In 1952, they organised the ‘Defiance Campaign’. ANC members ignored ‘whites only’ notices and attempted to get arrested. This is a good example of Civil Disobedience. In 1952, ANC membership increased from 7000 to 100,000.
© HarperCollins Publishers 2010 Significance How did black South Africans oppose apartheid? The ANC help to organise marches and demonstrations against apartheid. In March 1960, a demonstration against apartheid took place in the town of Sharpeville. Police opened fire on the unarmed demonstrators, killing 63 people. It became know as the Sharpeville Massacre, and countries around the world condemned apartheid and the South African Government.
© HarperCollins Publishers 2010 Significance How did black South Africans oppose apartheid? The South African Government increased its persecution of opposition groups, and banned the ANC. In 1961, the ANC established an armed group known as the ‘Umkhonto we Sizwe’ or ‘Spear of the Nation’. Their leader was Nelson Mandela. Their main tactic was to attack white- owned property. In 1962, Mandela was arrested and was sentenced to life imprisonment. During the 1960s, persecution of black South Africans increased. Over 1.5 million black South Africans were forced to move into ‘Bantustans’, which were all-black areas within South Africa.
© HarperCollins Publishers 2010 Significance How did black South Africans oppose apartheid? In 1968, the Bureau of State Security was established (BOSS). Its key role was to persecute people and groups who opposed apartheid. During the 1970s, many countries boycotted South Africa. Sporting events were boycotted. Economic sanctions were place on South Africa. Large companies, such as Pepsi Cola, closed their factories within South Africa. New leaders emerged, such as Steve Biko, who continued to resist apartheid. He was arrested in 1977 and was tortured. He died in police custody. Biko became a martyr. Other African countries, such as Zimbabwe, provided financial, military and political support to the ANC. By the 1990s, the white government realised it had to negotiate with the ANC.
© HarperCollins Publishers 2010 Significance How did black South Africans oppose apartheid? In 1992, the white President of South Africa, F.W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela signed an agreement to end apartheid. In April 1994, the first democratic election was held. The ANC won the elections, and in 1995 Nelson Mandela became the first black President of South Africa.
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