South Africa Most developed and wealthiest nation in Africa
Quick Early History Europeans came in 1600’s (Dutch, Germans, French) and came to be known as Afrikaners or Boers. In late 1800’s gold was discovered and British, arrived (Rioneks). In 1961, South Africa achieved independence from Britain, but not from white domination.
Beginnings of Apartheid In 1948, the white minority government instituted a policy of apartheid complete separation of the races. It banned social contact between blacks and whites segregated schools, hospitals, and neighborhoods. the blacks made up 70% of the population, they received only a small amount of the land, keeping the best land for the whites.
Apartheid laws determined Where you could live- townships, homelands Whom you could marry (even who you could sleep with- immortality act) Whom you could do business with Restricted land ownership Police powers including arresting people without a trial Restriction of movement – had to have passes
Regulation of living conditions, separate entrances for non whites Regulation of pay and types of jobs for blacks Lack of recognition for black labor unions Denied any representation of nonwhites in the national government What you could learn in school. “Science has proven that the black mind cannot learn at the same level as the white people.” Blacks learned how to wash clothes and build things. Only enough math to count change
Many white and black South Africans fought apartheid through peaceful protest but well armed South African army responded with deadly force.
Indians and Coloreds 13% population Skilled jobs, secondary education Marriage illegal until 1980s 1980s right to vote Separated even from blacks Colored are the “lowest” No ethnic groups claim them
Africans 70% population Could not vote, little education, menial jobs Passbooks 1958 forced to live on reserves (homelands) Reserves = 13% South Africa’s land. Poor land, limited farming, few facilities such as factories, modern roads, schools and hospitals Black Society = poverty, struggling each day to feed their families, denied education, housing, and high-paying jobs
International Pressure By the 1980’s, nations around the world pressured South Africa to end apartheid. So what could the rest of the world do? It’s another independent country- what can be done? It’s another independent country- what can be done?
Apartheid Ends In 1989 Mr. DeKlerk became prime minister, and started making changes, even though he was under a lot of pressure not to. He released Nelson Mandela who had been in prison 20 years for protesting Apartheid. 1990-91 all Apartheid laws were removed
Majority Rule An election that involved members of all races took place in 1994, making Nelson Mandela the first black President of South Africa. de Klerk is sworn in as deputy president.
Lingering Problems The policy of apartheid has hurt the economy of South Africa. Many countries imposed sanctions to not do business with or invest in South Africa during apartheid. Apartheid led to poor education of blacks, creating an uneducated mass of young people.