2 Life was born in Africa more precisely in Ethiopia A forewordLife was born in Africamore precisely in EthiopiabutThe whole of Africa was colonised and abused by the white man.Why ?Foreword: Life was born in Africa, more precisely in Ethiopia a state which was colonised and abused by the white man. It sounds strange that the whites wanted to civilize and at the same time to destroy the place where humanity itself was born.The white man tried to justify this behaviour with justifications like “they are uncivilised” or “they aren’t intelligent enough”, or “they must have someone who can teach them the real culture and traditions”.Africans were thought to be “uncivilised”whites considered themselves superior to every other “race”the white man was chosen by God and blacks were a subservient species.
3 areal motivations were based on economical considerations
5 Apartheid: an old idea, a new term Apartheid was a form of segregation based on racial differences launched by Malan.It became a law in 1948 with the National Party.Declared to be a“crime against humanity” in 1972South Africa is the country where apartheid was enforced by law for the first time.Apartheid was a system of racial segregation based on racial and linguistic differences launched by Malan (leader of Nationalist and former minister of the Dutch reformed church) and enforced in 1948 by the National Party.Laws which regulated apartheid kept Africans in an inferior position to whites. It was condemned as a “crime against humanity” by the United Nations
6 Ideological motivations Real motivationsEach racial group will have the possibility of enhancing their culture and traditionsReal motivations were based on economic considerationsBotha’s speech (1980)Ideological motivations: each racial group can have the possibility of developing their culture and traditions. Nazism influenced the movement with ideas of racial segregation, in particular trying to make the concept of the superiority of the white man more acceptableReal motivations: the real motivations were based on economic considerations. From the beginning of xxth century to the 80’s politicians, the majority of whom were whites, thought that the presence of blacks and natives in South Africa could threaten its fragile economy. (see Botha’s speech in in this speech Botha analyses South Africa’s economic structure and reveals that it depends on white people’s decisions, he finishes his speech stating that black presence would destroy this fragile economy.
7 What are the main features of apartheid? Inkata party for freedomNational PartyA.N.CBlack consciousness movementWhat are the main features of apartheid?National Party: the principal party ruling from 1948 to It was composed by white leaders who agreed on the conception that the whites were superior and the blacks must be segregated in defined areas called “homeland” or “Bantustan”.A.N.C: (African National Congress) the most important party (later to be declared illegal in 1960). The A.N.C promotes a political action which is characterized by the presence of democratic and anti racial segregation elements. It was inspired by Gandhi’s no-violence movements. (civil disobedience, passive or non violent resistance)When the A.N.C. became illegal, it built some military bases in other states like Mozambico, Swaziland. Some important personalities like Nelson Mandela belonged to A.N.C until it was declared illegal. Umkhoto we Sizwe: when A.N.C was banned, Mandela launched an armed struggle by forming “Umkhoto we Sizwe” also known as MK Inkata party for freedom: an illegal party, which opposed the A.N.C on tribal issues. This group used strikes and violence to achieve h the same rights of white people.They also created some forms of “concentration camps” where the spies of the government where tortured and killed. — Black consciousness movement: a protest movement of black university students led by Steve Biko.Umkhoto we Sizwe
8 National PartyThe party ruling from 1948 to 1994 imposed apartheid on South Africa.N.P imposed also the segregation of blacks in reserved areas called “bantustan” * or “homeland”.*Natives were called Bantù by whitesWhat measures were adopted by the National Party?reserves were created for blacks by the colonists who lived in the territory.the N.P took power and adopted a policy of apartheid also establishing that these reserves were to become the only places where natives could live, 3, 5 million people were transported in these “Bantustans” which seemed to be ghettos. Natives who worked in the town could live in the township (places where the hygienic conditions were terrible and where people must live in very small rooms), it was tolerated because they were the work force.1959: N.P deliberated the “The different development” which consisted in a double standard of development. The natives were denied citizenship.1960: creation of “Pass Law” a type of passport which was to be shown whenever a native entered a public structure or areas where whites lived. N.P created also different rights.
9 A.N.C & Umkhoto we SizweA.N.C promoted a policy characterized by the presence of democratic and anti-racial -segregation elements. It was inspired by Gandhi’s non-violence movements.Some important personalities like Nelson Mandela belonged to A.N.C
10 Umkhoto we SizweWhen A.N.C was banned, Mandela launched an armed struggle by forming “Umkhoto we Sizwe” also known as MK.So MK represented the armed wing of the ANC
11 Inkata party for freedom An illegal party, which opposed the A.N.C on tribal issues.They also created concentration camps where the spies of the government where tortured and killed
12 Black consciousness movement A protest movement of black university students led by Steve Biko
13 Resistance and repression During the1960s and 1970s black university students began to react against the government. The most important leader was Steve Biko a very charismatic figureHe became a martyr and a symbol of black resistance to the oppressive regime.Massacre of Soweto 1976Resistance and repressionMandela led the military wing of A.N.C : Umkhoto we Sizwe also known as M.K.The actions performed by MK led to even harsher repression by the government and as result Mandela was arrested (1962) and charged with high treason, this crime could be punished by death.During 1960s and 1970s black university students began to react against the government. The most important leader was Steve Biko a very charismatic person. He died of brain damage after being beaten by a police officer while in prison; he became a martyr and a symbol of black resistance to the oppressive regime. (I write what I Like)In Soweto in 1976 a peaceful demonstration of children protesting against the forced teaching of Afrikaans in black schools ended up in bloodshed, the government killed 575 people over an eight month period, a quarter of them under the age of eighteenAfrikaans* white’s language
15 What measures were adopted by the National Party? reserves were created for blacks, 5 million people were transported in “Bantustans”1959: N.P deliberated “The different development”1960: creation of “Pass Law” and of different rights.
16 What apartheid entailed …How did the rights of the whites differ from those of the blacks?Sexual union between different races could be punished by the law.Means of transport were separatedIn a market a white man must be served before the black oneEtc.
19 Times of change: from 1989 to 1994 De Klerk understood that apartheid must be abolished.In 1991 he decided to make a referendum to re-write the Constitution and to abolish racial segregation.In February Chris Hani was killed.1994 Mandela and De Klerk received the Nobel prize for peace.1994 South Africa’s first free electionsTime of changes: from 1989 to 1994De Klerk ruled from 1989 to 1994, he belonged to N.P but he understood that this policy couldn’t be adopted for yet a long time. The majority of whites were unsatisfied by the apartheid policy, and violence and riots were increasing.In 1991 he decided to make a referendum ( we must remember that only the whites could vote) to re-write the Constitution and to abolish racial segregation. The majority of the whites were in favour of the change.From 1992 to 1993 clashes increased and the situation became more and more dangerous. In February 1993 Chris Hani was killed, he was the vice president of A.N.C (on which the ban was lifted only in 1990) he was very important because he represented the rebels and he was recognised as the most important leader of the opposition after Mandela. Photo Chris Hani-In the same year Mandela, who had been in prison for 27 years, received the Nobel prize for peace with De Klerk.Finally in 1994 the first free elections took place in south Africa