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Movement to End Apartheid

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Presentation on theme: "Movement to End Apartheid"— Presentation transcript:

1 Movement to End Apartheid
South Africa Movement to End Apartheid

2 African National Congress
Founded in 1912. Worked with-in the law to resist Apartheid Strikes, boycotts. The ANC was outlawed in 1960 In 1961 became militant Previously non violent Faced imprisonment and organization was banned.

3 Sharpeville Massacre: March 1960
Demonstration against Pass Laws (internal passport system ) PEACEFUL march to Police station and to turn in Passports 20,000 person crowd Police Opened fire on unarmed demonstrators; 69 blacks killed & 180 wounded The South African Gov’t’s report : the demonstrators shot first & the police were forced to fire in self-defense “State of Emergency” in South Africa Declared Political meetings banned Crackdown on Civil Rights

4 General Law Amendment Act (1962)
Further Crackdown on resistance Minimum Five Year Prison Term to maximum of death for Sabotage (Protest) Can remain in prison up to 90 days before questioning process Indefinite Imprisonment without a trial

5 ANC Major Leader Nelson Mandela Born in 1918 / joined ANC in 1944
Launched Economic sabotage campaign after Sharpeville. Arrested and convicted for attempting overthrow government

6 Nelson Mandela (cont.) Used the Sharpeville court case as a platform to express his views on democracy "I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities,"  "It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die." Sentenced to Life: (18 of the 27 years were on Robben Island)

7 Nelson Mandela (cont.) Robben Island has been used as a prison for 300 years. Seven, shark-infested miles of water separate it from the mainland

8 Robben Island --- Prisoners doing HARD LABOR: crushing rocks
Nelson Mandela (cont.) Robben Island --- Prisoners doing HARD LABOR: crushing rocks

9 Nelson Mandela (cont.)

10 Soweto Riots (June 1976) Students could no longer accommodate inequality. Under the Bantu Education Act Black schools had been designed to reinforce the social and economic class structure of apartheid Taught how to be subservient Forced to learn Afrikaans the language of their oppressors How they resisted Protests, Boycotts, Demonstrations Daily Rioting – 600 students dead Spread throughout South Africa

11 Soweto Riots (June 1976)

12 Stephen Biko (1977) – Popular protestor (student leader) beaten to death by police while in custody in Pretoria. His funeral, which was conducted by the Reverend Desmond Tutu, was attended by more than 15,000 mourners. Thousands were barred from attending the services by security forces. Twelve Western countries sent representatives Biko's contribution to the black fight for freedom from apartheid is often placed as second only to that of former President Nelson Mandela

13 Stephen Biko

14 Movement becomes more Radical
South Africans enraged by a new constitution  ANC – dozens of terrorist attacks. (June 1985) South African Response Government attacked ANC bases in South Africa, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Botswana State of Emergency declared in 1985 April 1986 – Repeal of the Pass Laws

15 International Pressure
Unit 7: Africa

16 Bishop Desmond Tutu First black Anglican Dean of Johannesburg in 1975 & elected Archbishop of Cape Town in 1986 While Nelson Mandela was in Prison Archbishop Tutu often spoke out against the regime. Led economic fight against Apartheid Nonviolence Called for trade restrictions by other countries

17 Bishop Desmond Tutu (cont.)
declared “we refuse to be treated as the doormat for the government to wipe its jackboots on” Risked jail by calling for a boycott of municipal elections.

18 Divestment

19 Sanctions 1985: United States, France, Canada, European Union: limited sanctions on South Africa What had US citizens experienced during the 1950’s 60’s and 70’s ?? Civil Rights Movement 1986: United States imposed stricter sanctions Purpose: to isolate and starve the white-monopolized South African economy to the point of collapse.

20 Economic Pressure Apartheid Became The Moral Issue Of the 1980s On College Campuses Across the United States. Students Urged Their Schools and U.S Businesses To Economically Divest From South Africa To Pressure the South African Government To End Its Racist Rule

21 Economic Pressure United States Corporations announced they were leaving South Africa Examples: Coca Cola, General Motors, IBM 70 Companies withdrew Desmond Tutu - Won Nobel Peace Prize in 1984 for his efforts Due to the sheer size of the campaign the US government was forced to act as well.

22 US Involvement with Apartheid

23 End of Apartheid Unit 7: Africa

24 President F.W. de Klerk Became President September 1989
Mass Democratic Movement (MDM): 1989: MDM led a 2 day General Strike: 3 million Africans participated 28 demonstrators killed by police February 1990 – legalized ANC  ANC leaders engaged in negotiations with white leaders which led to the 1994 democratic elections. Nelson Mandela released from prison in February 1990 (Jailed ) The ANC is the dominant political party in South Africa, having won more than two-thirds of the vote in the 2004 national elections.

25 End of Apartheid! Meetings between Mandela and de Klerk
Four Year “State of Emergency” Ended Apartheid Repealed Separate Amenities Act repealed (1990)

26 More Laws Reversed Land Acts repealed (June 1991)
March 1992: Referendum (vote by the people) – dealing with apartheid. Many people wanted to end apartheid (68.6%)  Multiracial government 1993 de Klerk & Mandela were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts at reform in South Africa April 1994: Universal elections New Constitution – blacks still did not gain power in government

27 Election of 1994: Election of 1994: Mandela vs. de Klerk
Nelson Mandela elected President (with de Klerk as V.P.) 1994: Population of South Africa Whites 16% Blacks 70% Mixed races 11% Asian 3%  1994: 80% of land owned by whites

28 New Constitution: 1996: More democratic Constitution was created
Equal rights Bill of Rights De Klerk stepped down in 1999

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