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Apartheid: Racial Segregation and White Minority Rule in South Africa.

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Presentation on theme: "Apartheid: Racial Segregation and White Minority Rule in South Africa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Apartheid: Racial Segregation and White Minority Rule in South Africa

2 Basic Facts Four basic racial categories - Native: indigenous African - White - Coloured: mixed heritage, not treated as badly as blacks - Asian

3 More Basic Stuff Sometimes people of the same family were classified differently Imposed after the election of 1948 when a new political party came to power - Favored the right of Afrikaners (Dutch descent) Gender discrimination as well

4 Apartheid Laws Population Registration Act 1950: All people had to have identity cards specifying their race Group Areas Act 1950: People could live only in areas designated for their race - Native and Coloured residents forcibly removed Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act 1949 and Immorality Act 1950 Video Interview

5 More Apartheid Reservation of Separate Amenities Act 1953: Exactly what is sounds like Suppression of Communism Act 1950: Anyone speaking against Apartheid could be declared Communist Bantu Education Act 1953: Separate education systems - Education for Blacks would prepare them to be laborers Other Bantu Acts: Steps to remove blacks from government

6 “Bantustans”


8 Continued... By 1970 all non-white representation in government was eliminated - “native” and “coloured” residents were not even considered citizens anymore - “asians” had never been allowed to vote Many people were forced to move to designated “homelands” or “bantustans” - There were ten, related to tribe

9 Sharpeville Massacre (1960)

10 ANC (African National Congress) Liberation organization with particular power in South Africa Some resented the power that some white liberals had in the ANC Tied to the South African Communist Party - Eventually declared a Communist organization Umkhonto we Sizwe was the violent militant wing Still the dominant political party in South Africa

11 Go Over Homework- Selections from the Freedom Charter

12 PAC (Pan-Africanist Congress) Formed by members who left the ANC - Wanted an organization with purely black leadership - Objected to connection with other organizations - Objected to the 1955 “Freedom Charter” Used the same tactics as the ANC with different end vision of S. Africa

13 Specific Actions Taken ANC staged “Defiance Campaign” in 1952 to protest apartheid - Mass strikes and boycotts - Died out in 1953 after thousands of arrests Protests such as the 1960 demonstration in Sharpeville Church Street Bombing 1983 Negotiated with the S. African government to repeal laws and, in 1994, allow free elections

14 The Rest of the World In 1960 the U.N. agreed to put pressure on S. Africa to end Apartheid - Why at this time? What happened in 1960? - More official condemnations between 1962 and 1974 U.N. passed voluntary arms embargo in 1963 and made it mandatory in 1977 25 nations, including U.S. and Britain passed sanctions by the late 1980's

15 Sports Boycotts S. Africa banned from the 1964 and 1968 Olympic games - George Houser an important American figure in organizing support for boycotts 32 Countries boycotted the 1986 Commonwealth Games Most nations did not lift sporting bans till 1993

16 Walter Sisulu and Oliver Tambo Both helped plan the “Defiance Campaign” Both helped organize and lead Umkhonto we Sizwe Sisulu went around the world to get support for the ANC Sisulu spend 26 years in jail Tambo was banned by the S. African government from 1959-1990

17 Nelson Mandela Mandela and Tambo opened the only African law firm in S. Africa Major figure behind the “defiance campaign” In prison from 1962-1990 - became an international celebrity when he turned 60 in 1978 Led negotiations with white government from 1990-1994 Elected the first president of democratic S. Africa

18 Turning Point: Mandela is released from prison in 1990Mandela is released from prison in 1990

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