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Emergent Nationalism in South Africa The Struggle for Majority Rule.

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1 Emergent Nationalism in South Africa The Struggle for Majority Rule

2 OVERVIEW In this lesson we examine: Roots of apartheid Forms of struggle International pressure on apartheid Reform and the collapse of apartheid

3 Unlike other African colonies, the colonies of South Africa were dominated by fiercely independent and powerful white minorities that controlled the land, economy and politics. The Afrikaans were descended from Dutch, German and English settlers and had violently defended its territorial, political and cultural authority in conflicts with the local population and the British Empire. Roots of apartheid

4 As Europe retreated from its overseas empires, South Africa was formed as a single state in 1910 from four separate colonies. Discriminatory policies were continued into the new dominion as coloured people and blacks had few rights and little representation in government.

5 Officially put into practice after 1948, apartheid was formed through a series of laws under the pretense of “separate but equal” development. What were the major features of apartheid (“apartness”)?

6 Black land ownership was restricted to 13% of South Africa’s total area Racial discrimination was legal for employment A separate school system was created for blacks How were economic opportunities affected?

7 Racial segregation existed for most public facilities Blacks were forced onto reserves known as “bantustans” Blacks were required to carry ‘reference books’ How was freedom of movement restricted?

8 How was social contact between races controlled? Mixed marriages were prohibited Sexual relations between races was a criminal offense

9 Blacks had no right to vote and no seats for elected representation in any major government How was representation in government affected?

10 How was citizenship affected? The Black Homeland Citizenship Act of 1970 removed South African citizenship for blacks

11 ANC (African National Congress) Originally formed in early 1900’s, the ANC became increasingly active during the 1950’s under Nelson Mandela’s leadership. What was its central platform? After the Sharpeville Massacre, members of the ANC formed a military wing (Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation)) to seek violent means of change. They targeted the government and military. By the mid-1960’s, the leaders of the ANC, including Mandela, had been arrested and their movement was banned by the government. Multi-racial, democratic incorporation: “Every man and woman shall have the right to vote for and stand as candidates for all bodies which make laws.” Peaceful protest and petition Civil disobedience against apartheid laws

12 PAC (Pan African Congress) Exclusively black Seeking militant and violent means if necessary The PAC’s military wing targeted government and civilians. Like the ANC, they too were arrested and banned by the mid-1960’s Originally part of the ANC, this group broke off in pursuit of different means of ending apartheid

13 Black Consciousness Movement Disengagement from white government Separation and sovereignty (similar to the US Black Power movement) The BCM would support the foundation of student movements all across South Africa but lost momentum when Biko was arrested and tortured to death in prison in 1977. Led by Steven Biko during the 1960’s, this movement called for:

14 International pressure against apartheid From its beginning, apartheid drew criticism internationally. Because it was against the United Nations charter, the UN continually criticized and called for South Africa to end apartheid. How did the international community rebuke apartheid?

15 1962: The UN condemned apartheid 1963: The UN called for an arms embargo against South Africa 1985: Commonwealth countries imposed a trade embargo and other restrictions 1986: The US introduced mandatory sanctions against South Africa For what possible reasons might the US have been reluctant to sanction South Africa so many years after the passing of its own Civil Rights Act in 1964? Actions against apartheid

16 1983: Reform bill allowed mixed race and Asians (but not blacks) into a three-part parliament; eventually boycotted by the other minority groups and led to further rioting after 1984 1984-1986: Prohibitions against interracial marriages and racially mixed political parties were repealed and rights to conduct business and own property in designated urban areas were extended to blacks; rejected by a majority of blacks who wanted the abolition of apartheid. From 1978-1989, Prime Minster P.W. Botha attempted and did institute some reforms to apartheid: What possibly motivated Botha to begin the reform process? Reform and collapse of apartheid

17 Allowed multi-racial protests against apartheid Lifted the ban against the ANC Released Nelson Mandela from prison F.W. de Klerk succeeded Botha as prime minister in 1989. What major policies did he take against apartheid? Why did the white government prefer to negotiate with the ANC rather than with any other black group?

18 Negotiations between the government and the ANC began over the structure of power. After initially seeking veto power over decisions that affected the white minority, the government eventually gave in to full majority rule.

19 Apartheid was abolished in 1993 and steps began to create a new constitution for South Africa. By 1994, the ANC was hugely popular in the first ever fully open elections and Nelson Mandela was chosen by a coalition as the first black president of South Africa. De Klerk became one of the deputy presidents.

20 The backlash against the whites was limited and anger against apartheid was expressed in the controversial Truth and Reconciliation Commission in which former members of the white dominated government were encouraged to bring abuses of power in return for amnesty.

21 In what ways was apartheid a part of South African culture? How did apartheid affect the social, political and economic lives of South African blacks? What forms did the struggle against apartheid take? Who was Nelson Mandela and what was the ANC? What role did international pressure play in the end of apartheid? Who was F.W. de Klerk and what role did he play in the end of apartheid? SUMMARY QUESTIONS

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