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Published byMaude Hines Modified over 7 years ago
South Africa Apartheid
Ethnic Groups Africans – black South Africans. (Bantus and Zulus Whites –Afrikaners – Dutch descendents –English – descendents of British settlers –Both these groups have a shared history Colored – anyone of mixed ancestry Asians – smallest ethnic group
Key Terms Apartheid – policy of separate development –Segregation –Legal separation of the races Homelands – areas set aside for Bantus and Zulus –The white government used these areas to control the blacks –Whites constitute 11% of the population but control 85% of the land –White areas surround the black areas
Key Terms Passbooks – identification book that all Africans had to carry at all times –Includes address and employment information –They were checked at the entrance to the cities and any time police wanted to. –Penalty for not carrying it was imprisonment African National Congress (ANC) –Bantus and Zulus political party –The ANC was Banned from 1960-1990
Major Events Sharpville and Capetown Demonstrations (1960) –Africans staged large protests against the passbook law –Police opened fire and killed many of the protestors –Many protestors were arrested and held indefinitely without trial
Major Events Soweto Riots (1976) –Student protest over the issue of taking classes in Afrikaans –Police get involved causing the peaceful protest to turn into a riot that spread throughout the homelands –Many students were killed or arrested –This is one of the first time that some Afrikaans start to question the apartheid laws
Changes Laws are eased in response to the riots –Segregation signs were taken down –Bantus are allowed to build houses, and open businesses A worker shortage in skilled areas helps –Afrikaners had no choice but to train blacks in skilled jobs –Wages for Africans goes up as a result
State of Emergency (1985) Due to the riots and the civil unrest the government declares a state of emergency Police could arrest anyone and hold them indefinitely They impose a curfew mostly on blacks They banned public funerals
International Response (1985) Countries start a policy of economic divestment Countries start economic sanctions –France and Great Britain ban all investments –Restrict bank loans to South Africa –Banned the sale of nuclear technology –Ban on importing of minerals and products from South Africa –Ban the sale of oil and petroleum products –All direct air travel was cut off –Coca Cola, IBM and GM all sell assets and leave South Africa
Movement Away from Apartheid Mass democratic movement –They use political and economic strategies such as rent strikes, hunger strikes and boycotts De Klerk is elected –He legalizes mass demonstrations –Releases many political prisoners (including Mandela) –Cuts back on the number of segregated areas
Movement Away from Apartheid Release of Nelson Mandela (1990) –ANC ban is lifted –Mandela is released from prison after 28 years –Immediate negotiations begin with De Klerk –ANC agrees to drop call for violence Repeal of Apartheid Laws 1990-91 Vote for equality (1992) –68% vote for new constitution –1994 new constitution is made –Mandela became the new president –Whites no longer have total control of the country
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