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The Black Death-100 Years War- Great Schism.  During the middle ages Feudalism was the form of government of much of Europe  King on top had complete.

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Presentation on theme: "The Black Death-100 Years War- Great Schism.  During the middle ages Feudalism was the form of government of much of Europe  King on top had complete."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Black Death-100 Years War- Great Schism

2  During the middle ages Feudalism was the form of government of much of Europe  King on top had complete control  Lords (aristocrats-nobles) had wealth and supported king  Knights fought  Peasants (the great majority) lived miserably with no rights

3  Little Ice Age hits Europe in the end of the 13 th Century  Small drop in temp= disastrous weather conditions  The Great Famine  Heavy rain leads to plant destruction  10% of the population dies  Survivors are malnourished  Increased trade with Genghis Khan’s (early 13 th century) protection of the silk road

4  Bubonic Plague= Yersinia Pestis came from fleas on infested rats.  Starts in ports in Sicily and spreads northward in the middle of the 14 th C  Estimates claim that 25-50% were killed...

5  Some people abandon social norms (Boccaccio’s quote 307)  Extreme asceticism: Flagellants not very popular with the higher-ups  Pogroms and anti-semitism  Loss of life meant raise in wages and decrease in prices  Lack of labor means giving in to demands including limited legal rights

6  Feudalism (manorialism) begins to fade  Upset nobles try to have the monarch crush revolts  Peasant revolts spread throughout the land (Jacquerie or the ciompi)  Peasants begin to fight for rights... Only men sorry ladies

7  Causes:  King Philip IV (of France) dies with no male heir  Isabella of England, (she-wolf) daughter of P4, has her son Edward III claim title since he is in line  French decide to go with a cousin and rename him Philip VI of Valois  Year later in 1337 Edward does not give homage for Gascony and Philip takes it. Edward declares war!

8  French army wore heavy armor and cavalrymen looked with disdain on foot soldiers and crossbowmen  English used peasants with pikes and bows (go welsh)  English win at Crecy with more advanced army in 1346  The Black Prince (Edward’s son) devastates the French later (battle of Poitiers) capture French king John II and a momentary truce is made

9  John’s son Charles V gets it all back by 1374 for France  Henry V (England) in 1415 at battle of Agincourt. Heavily armored French get stuck in the mud and are slaughtered (took advantage of a French civil war)  Henry marries Catherine (Charles VI’s) daughter and becomes heir apparent

10  Charles the Dauphin (VI’s son) becomes frustrated and is saved unexpectedly by the leadership of a peasant woman (Joan of Arc)  Win at Orleans  Burgundians capture the girl and she is burned to death as a witch at 19 : (  War lasted from ish

11  Most Europeans realize that the old fighting system needs to be changed to incorporate more peasants and bowman  Growing tensions from England and France  Influence of a woman in politics/military

12  Scutage  3 rd Estate  Golden Bull  Mysticism  Petrarch  Dante  Conciliarism  Popolo Grasso

13  “The struggles between the papacy and secular monarchies began during the pontificate of Pope Boniface VIII”.... Understand?  King Philip IV (remember p4!) of France began to tax the church  Pope Boniface responds with pg 322 the Unam Sanctam

14  Unam Sanctam claimed that secular rulers could not control religious ones!  Pope excommunicates Philip IV  Philip sends a military and kidnaps the pope!!!  The Italians freak out and save him ... And the peasants rejoice

15  Pope Boniface ultimately dies of stress from the whole event and a college of cardinals is summoned  Phillip IV “encourages” the cardinals to elect a French pope.  Clement V takes up residence in a city of popes (avignon) .... And the peasants do not rejoice

16  People become frustrated with the church in Avignon (very wealthy) and pope is the bishop of Rome  People become suspicious that the French are using the papacy as puppets 113 of 134 new cardinals are French!  Catherine of Siena calls Pope Gregory XI out pg 323

17  Gregory XI returns to Rome and dies  At the new college of cardinals Roman citizens “encourage” the cardinals to elect a non-French pope pg 324  Urban VI is chosen (an Italian.... And no I don’t know why we went from Urban VIII to the VI)

18  Urban VI brings in a ton of new Italian cardinals and the French run away  French church leaders claim it was a sham and call for a new pope to be elected and choose Clement VII who returns to Avignon  Great Schism begins in the Church with election of two popes

19  Both popes excommunicate each other  Marsiglio writes Defender of the Peace and claims church authority has no power over secular activities and should be separated  Rise of Conciliarism: Have a church council to determine changes and solve problems not single church leaders

20  Council of Pisa deposes both popes and elects Alexander V.... Yeah?!?  Earlier popes choose not to step down so now we have 3 popes  Another ecumenical council is held by Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund and Martin V is elected and 3 popes all kicked out

21  People lost faith in the church and its hold over Europe was significantly weakened  Wealth of the church led to many great monuments and sculptures (Renaissance)  Rise in Mysticism

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