Presentation on theme: "The Black Death-100 Years War- Great Schism"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Black Death-100 Years War- Great Schism Chapter 11 ReviewThe Black Death-100 Years War- Great Schism
2 FeudalismDuring the middle ages Feudalism was the form of government of much of EuropeKing on top had complete controlLords (aristocrats-nobles) had wealth and supported kingKnights foughtPeasants (the great majority) lived miserably with no rights
3 Trouble A-brewingLittle Ice Age hits Europe in the end of the 13th CenturySmall drop in temp= disastrous weather conditionsThe Great FamineHeavy rain leads to plant destruction10% of the population diesSurvivors are malnourishedIncreased trade with Genghis Khan’s (early 13th century) protection of the silk road
4 Black DeathBubonic Plague= Yersinia Pestis came from fleas on infested rats.Starts in ports in Sicily and spreads northward in the middle of the 14th CEstimates claim that 25-50% were killed. . .
5 Aftermath of the Plague Some people abandon social norms (Boccaccio’s quote 307)Extreme asceticism: Flagellants not very popular with the higher-upsPogroms and anti-semitismLoss of life meant raise in wages and decrease in pricesLack of labor means giving in to demands including limited legal rights
6 Peasants begin to fight Feudalism (manorialism) begins to fadeUpset nobles try to have the monarch crush revoltsPeasant revolts spread throughout the land (Jacquerie or the ciompi)Peasants begin to fight for rights. . . Only men sorry ladies
7 War erupts Causes: King Philip IV (of France) dies with no male heir Isabella of England, (she-wolf) daughter of P4, has her son Edward III claim title since he is in lineFrench decide to go with a cousin and rename him Philip VI of ValoisYear later in 1337 Edward does not give homage for Gascony and Philip takes it. Edward declares war!
8 Course of the WarFrench army wore heavy armor and cavalrymen looked with disdain on foot soldiers and crossbowmenEnglish used peasants with pikes and bows (go welsh)English win at Crecy with more advanced army in 1346The Black Prince (Edward’s son) devastates the French later (battle of Poitiers) capture French king John II and a momentary truce is made
9 Phase 2 John’s son Charles V gets it all back by 1374 for France Henry V (England) in 1415 at battle of Agincourt. Heavily armored French get stuck in the mud and are slaughtered (took advantage of a French civil war)Henry marries Catherine (Charles VI’s) daughter and becomes heir apparent
10 A woman saves FranceCharles the Dauphin (VI’s son) becomes frustrated and is saved unexpectedly by the leadership of a peasant woman (Joan of Arc)Win at OrleansBurgundians capture the girl and she is burned to death as a witch at 19 : (War lasted from ish
11 Impact of 100 years WarMost Europeans realize that the old fighting system needs to be changed to incorporate more peasants and bowmanGrowing tensions from England and FranceInfluence of a woman in politics/military
13 The Great Schism“The struggles between the papacy and secular monarchies began during the pontificate of Pope Boniface VIII” Understand?King Philip IV (remember p4!) of France began to tax the churchPope Boniface responds with pg 322 the Unam Sanctam
14 Great Schism contUnam Sanctam claimed that secular rulers could not control religious ones!Pope excommunicates Philip IVPhilip sends a military and kidnaps the pope!!!The Italians freak out and save him. . . And the peasants rejoice
15 Papacy in Avignon ( )Pope Boniface ultimately dies of stress from the whole event and a college of cardinals is summonedPhillip IV “encourages” the cardinals to elect a French pope.Clement V takes up residence in a city of popes (avignon)And the peasants do not rejoice
16 Papacy in AvignonPeople become frustrated with the church in Avignon (very wealthy) and pope is the bishop of RomePeople become suspicious that the French are using the papacy as puppets 113 of 134 new cardinals are French!Catherine of Siena calls Pope Gregory XI out pg 323
17 Changes in the Church Gregory XI returns to Rome and dies At the new college of cardinals Roman citizens “encourage” the cardinals to elect a non-French pope pg 324Urban VI is chosen (an Italian And no I don’t know why we went from Urban VIII to the VI)
18 French get backUrban VI brings in a ton of new Italian cardinals and the French run awayFrench church leaders claim it was a sham and call for a new pope to be elected and choose Clement VII who returns to AvignonGreat Schism begins in the Church with election of two popes
19 More Popes Both popes excommunicate each other Marsiglio writes Defender of the Peace and claims church authority has no power over secular activities and should be separatedRise of Conciliarism: Have a church council to determine changes and solve problems not single church leaders
20 Conciliarism FailCouncil of Pisa deposes both popes and elects Alexander V Yeah?!?Earlier popes choose not to step down so now we have 3 popesAnother ecumenical council is held by Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund and Martin V is elected and 3 popes all kicked out
21 Results of Great Schism People lost faith in the church and its hold over Europe was significantly weakenedWealth of the church led to many great monuments and sculptures (Renaissance)Rise in Mysticism
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