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HH World Studies.   Many educated people began to study the world around them in the 1600s and 1700s  Great thinkers of the Enlightenment are known.

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Presentation on theme: "HH World Studies.   Many educated people began to study the world around them in the 1600s and 1700s  Great thinkers of the Enlightenment are known."— Presentation transcript:

1 HH World Studies

2   Many educated people began to study the world around them in the 1600s and 1700s  Great thinkers of the Enlightenment are known as philosophes  New views of the world led philosophes to believe in basic equality and rights, and that human life could constantly be improved by applying natural law Background

3   Philosophes challenged the superstitions and strict traditions of the Catholic Church  Enlightened ideas were spread through salons and publications such as the Encyclopedia Background

4   REASON  NATURE  PROGRESS  LIBERTY Themes of the Enlightenment

5  PhilosopheOriginWorksIdeas about Human Nature Ideas about Government Hobbes Locke Voltaire Rousseau Montesquieu Adam Smith Diderot Wollstonecraft Take Notes and Create a Chart

6   English  The Leviathan (1651) Ideas about Human Nature  human nature is bad, warlike, greedy and brutish Thomas Hobbes

7  Ideas about Government  Pro-Absolutism  Men do not know good vs. evil  People give up their rights to the state in the form of a social contract  People have NO right to rebel Thomas Hobbes

8   English, writing during the time of the English Civil War and Glorious Revolution  Two Treatises of Government (1688) Ideas about Government  Anti-absolutism  Legitimacy comes from the CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED (people)  If government does not protect the NATURAL RIGHTS of the people, they have the right to rebel “Our Friend” John Locke

9  Ideas about Human Nature  Tabula Rasa – all human knowledge is shaped by the environment  Rejected idea of original sin – everyone responsible for their own religious salvation  People have certain natural rights that they must never surrender (life, liberty, property) John Locke

10   French  Candide – satire attacking war, the Church, and optimism  Exiled from France, came to admire English society and criticized French abuses Ideas About Human Nature  Man has an natural desire to pursue happiness Voltaire

11   Voltaire was a Deist Ideas about Government  Advocated RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE and freedom  Recognized the necessity of religion but attacked the authority of the organized Church  “ Crush the Infamous Thing” Voltaire

12   French  Social Contract (1762) Ideas about Government  Citizens form a government (contract) for the common good  The general will of the people would become law  Popular Sovereignty – government created by and subject to the will of the people Jean-Jacques Rousseau

13  Other Thoughts on Human Nature  Society ruins natural goodness  People must reform society so that conscience and emotion guide their action  Improving intellect at the expense of emotion corrupts people Jean-Jacques Rousseau

14   French  The Spirit of Laws (1748) – the perfect government is one where laws are created with the people in mind Baron de Montesquieu

15  Ideas about Government  Government should be suited to the needs and circumstances of the people (no one system works for all)  Separation of Powers – government should be divided so that no one branch dominates the others Baron de Montesquieu

16   Scottish Economist  Wealth of Nations (1776) Ideas About Government  Laissez Faire: the world economy should be self- regulating with out government interferences  Anti-mercantilism Adam Smith

17   All business/economic activity regulated by SUPPLY AND DEMAND (competition and self interest)  Free Enterprise/Trade – every person should be free to go into any business and operate for maximum profit Adam Smith

18   French  Editor of the Encyclopedia  Praised freedom of expression and education for all Diderot

19   English author who supported the extension of Enlightenment ideas to women  A Vindication of the Rights of Women  Believed women and men were created equal  Criticized the conditions in which women lived, particularly the poor Mary Wollstonecraft

20 PhilosopheOriginWorks Human Nature /Society Government Thomas Hobbes EnglishLeviathan Humans are selfish, warlike and brutish People sacrifice their rights to a Gov’t that has absolute authority to make laws and create society (pro-absolutism) John Locke EnglishTwo Treatises Humans are born as a blank slate (tabula rosa), and have natural rights Gov’ts rule by the consent of the governed and the people have right to revolt if it denies their rights (anti-absolutism) Voltaire FrenchCandide Man has an inborn desire to pursue happiness Religious tolerance (attacked the power of the organized Church) Rousseau FrenchSocial Contract Society corrupts man’s natural goodness; people should act according to conscience and emotion Citizens form a gov’t (popular sovereignty) to determine the common good (determined by the general will) Montesquieu FrenchSpirit of Laws Gov’t should suit the needs of people –separation of powers and checks and balances Adam Smith ScottishWealth of Nations The economy should be guided by the forces of supply and demand Gov’t should take a laissez- faire or “hands off” approach to the economy Diderot FrenchEncyclopedia Believed in the freedom of speech and education for all Mary Wollstonecraft English A Vindication of the Rights of Women Man and women are created equal Criticized the government’s treatment of women, particularly the poor

21  The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas Enlightened Despots The American Revolution

22   Inspired reform  REASON led many to question traditional customs and beliefs  Example: many questioned divine right of kings and a rigid class system Enlightenment Ideas Challenge Societal Norms

23   Government and the Church defended the old order (WHY?)  Used Censorship to limit access to ideas and information Enlightenment Faces Censorship

24   The lives of most Europeans (peasants) were slow to change Limited Change

25  Enlightened Despots  Rulers who accepted new ideas about reason and reform were called Enlightened Despots  Used their power to bring about social and political change  Maintained absolute control

26  Frederick II Attempts Reform  Frederick the Great: King of Prussia from 1740 to  Called “first servant of the state”  Limit use of torture  Free press  Simplify laws = more efficient Government  Religious Tolerance  not willing to give up power of a strong monarchy

27  Catherine the Great Studies Philosophes’ Works  Catherine the Great: Empress of Russia  made limited reforms  Abolished torture  Religious tolerance  did not give up her own power

28  Joseph II Continues Reform  Joseph II: King of Austria  Continued work of his mother, Maria Theresa  Considered one of the most radical Enlightened Despots  Supported religious equality  Ended censorship; free press  Encouraged Church to support education  Abolished Serfdom

29   Founding Fathers read the works of prominent philosophes  Enlightenment ideas influenced their beliefs about good government  The right to rebel (Locke)  Natural rights (Locke)  Separation of Powers (M.)  Religious tolerance The American Revolution


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