Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment The Age of Reason. Path to the Enlightenment The Enlightenment was a 18 th century philosophical movement built on the achievements."— Presentation transcript:
Path to the Enlightenment The Enlightenment was a 18 th century philosophical movement built on the achievements of the Scientific Revolution. Enlightenment philosophers hoped to make a better society by applying the scientific method and the use of reason to social problems. Enlightenment philosophers said society was governed by natural laws just like the universe which Newton described.
General Beliefs of the Enlightenment 1. Reason should be used at all times. 2. The search for new knowledge should always continue. 3. Prisoners should not be tortured. Justice systems should improve. 4. Slavery and warfare should be done away with. 5. Freedom of religion, speech, and press should be enjoyed by all. 6. Everyone deserves liberty and equality. 7. There should be public education for all, not just the rich.
John Locke People are born with a tabula rosa, or blank slate. All people are equal. The right influence and environment for the young could create a new way of understanding and lead to a better society. People are born with natural rights. Life, liberty, and property People have the right to choose their government. Social Contract. Government gets its rights from the people. Citizens have the right to overthrow a government that violates their natural rights.
Philosophes and Their Ideas Philosophe – French for philosopher. They wanted to improve the world through rational criticism of beliefs in all areas. They opposed special privileges for the rich, and divine right rulers. They opposed slavery, torture, religious persecution, and censorship. Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot are the best known philosophes.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, the Baron de Montesquieu The Spirit of the Laws (1748) Studied governments to find natural laws governing social and political relationships. Identified 3 types of government – republics, despotism, and monarchies. Absolute rulers limit basic rights like the freedoms of speech, press, and religion. All nations should decrease their military to reduce the threat of war. Separation of Powers Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Branches Checks and Balances
Francois-Marie Arouet, (Voltaire) Criticized Christianity. Religious myths and ceremonies do nothing to make man better and should be ignored. Believe only those things about God that are based on reason and common sense. Deism The world is like a clock. God created it and left it alone to run according to natural laws without his intervention. “Clockwork Universe.” The scientist is more important than the conquering general.
Denis Diderot Encyclopedia (1751) 28 volumes argued for religious toleration and social improvements to make society more humane.
Adam Smith Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations (1776) Scottish economist “Invisible Hand” – prices set by supply and demand. Government has three functions Protect society from invasion Defend the society from crime Maintain public works
Physiocrats French economists. Laissez-faire – (“let the people do”) Governments should not interfere with economic choices through regulation.
Jean Jacques Rousseau Social Contract (1762) - members of a society agree to be governed by the general will of the people. Emile – education should nurture, not restrict children’s natural instincts. Compared to man in the stone age, modern man is unhappy, insecure, and greedy. Social and political reform must be made before man can become a good person.
Mary Wollstonecraft A Vindication of the Rights of Women She is considered the founder of the European and American women’s rights movements.
John Wesley Began Methodism. Preached that the gift of God’s grace was the way to salvation. Stressed the importance of good works.
Conclusion The Enlightenment took the tools of the Scientific Revolution and applied them to society. The ideals of the Enlightenment led to the American and French Revolutions which changed the world.