Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment Main Idea Essential Questions"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Enlightenment Main Idea Essential Questions European thinkers developed new ideas about government and society during the Enlightenment.Essential QuestionsHow was the Enlightenment influenced by reason?What new views did philosophers have about government?What new views did philosophers have about society?How did Enlightenment spread?
2 The Age of ReasonScientific Revolution convinced many European thinkers about power of reasonWondered if reason could be used to study human nature, societyViewed reason as best way to understand truthConcluded reason could be used to solve all human problemsThis time of optimism now called the Enlightenment
3 Ideas of Enlightenment The Age of ReasonHeld notion that world problems could be solvedNew ideas debated in coffeehouses, public spacesWriters published ideasIdeas of EnlightenmentParis, center of intellectual activityParisian women hosted social gatherings, salonsPhilosophers, artists, scientists, writers regularly discussed ideasPeak of Enlightenment
4 Find the Main IdeaWhat exciting conclusion did philosophers reach during the Enlightenment?Answer(s): Reason could be used to solve all human problems.
5 New Views on Government As the Enlightenment began, European thinkers began looking for ways to apply reason in order to improve the human condition.English thinker, wrote that absolute monarchy bestBelieved people needed government to impose orderPeople selfish, greedyShould exchange some freedoms for peace, safety, orderThomas HobbesEnglish philosopher, believed all people born equalGovernment should protect people’s natural rightsMonarchs not chosen by GodPower limited by lawsIdeas foundation for modern democracyJohn Locke
6 Jean-Jacques Rousseau French philosopher, believed people basically goodBelieved society corrupted peopleWrote The Social Contract, contract between all members of society“Man is born free but everywhere is in chains.”View of Government, SocietyBelieved government should work for common good, not wealthy fewIndividuals should give up some freedoms for benefit of communityDespised inequality in societyViews inspired revolutionaries in years to come
7 Baron de Montesquieu Separation of powers The Spirit of the Laws Best form of government divided power among branches of governmentSeparation of powers kept individual or group from abusing powerThe Spirit of the LawsPublished 1748, showed admiration of Great Britain’s governmentPowers divided into branches: legislative, executive, judicialParliament made laws, king carried out laws, courts interpreted lawsChecks and balancesSeparation of powers allowed each branch to check against power of othersConcept later important structure of democratic governments
8 Make InferencesWhy was the subject of government so important to Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau and Montesquieu?Answer(s): Each philosopher had strong opinions about the power and purpose of government.
9 New Views on SocietyVoltaireOutspoken philosopher,Attacked injustice among nobility, government, churchCreated enemies, imprisoned twiceDefended principles, fought ignoranceLifelong struggle for justice, toleration, liberty
10 Diderot & Encyclopedia Attacks by French leaders New Views on SocietyDiderot & Encyclopediadetermined to try to compile knowledge into a single workextensive 35-volume work took 27 year to completeSpread Enlightenment ideasAttacks by French leaders- Criticisms of church, government, legal system- Tried to stop publication- Completed in secretAdam Smithused reason to analyze economic systemswrote The Wealth of NationsStrong believer in laissez-faire economics, no govt. regulationBelieved economy would be stronger if market forces of supply and demand were allowed to work freely
11 How did philosophers apply reason to issues in society? SummarizeHow did philosophers apply reason to issues in society?Answer(s): They used reason to challenge existing societal views and government policies.
12 Enlightenment Ideas Spread The spirit of optimism quickly spread throughout Europe. A few monarchs became enlightened despots, changing their systems of government and ruling according to Enlightenment ideas.Enacted some reforms like: education, some religious tolerance, abolishment of torturePrussia, Russia, AustriaDid not make reforms to achieve justice but to make own rule more powerfulNo religious tolerance for JewsOpposed serfdom, did not abolishLimitationsChanges resisted by nobility, churchhad no intention of giving up powerReality?
13 Enlightenment Ideas Spread Challenged BeliefsWriters, philosophers questioned ideas long held as absolute truthChallenged beliefs in absolute monarchies, questioned relationship between church and sate, debated rules and rights of people in societyPromoted ideas reformers and revolutionaries would later use to change societyBelief in progress spurred many to enact reformsBelieved reason could solve any problemDid not accept poverty, ignorance, inequality as facts of lifeReformsIdeas about power, authority inspired reforms and revolutionsAmerican colonists inspired to break free from British monarchyColonists strongly influenced by political views of Locke, RousseauRevolutions