Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment A New Way of Thinking. I. The Enlightenment A. A time when the use of reason (logical thinking) and science were applied to political,"— Presentation transcript:
C. The best government, according to Hobbes, was one that had the absolute power of a leviathan (sea monster).
Views & Beliefs Man is naturally cruel and must be controlled. social contractMan gives up rights for order to enter into a social contract – an agreement to give up man’s natural state to live in organized society.
Ideas on Gov’t ► A powerful gov’t must ensure order and obedience ► An absolute monarchy Ideas on Gov’t
Impact ► Absolute monarchs used his ideas to justify their rule. Impact
John Locke Wrote Two Treatises of Government (1690)
Views & Beliefs Man is naturally good & born equal natural rights-Every man has natural rights- rights belonging to all humans (life, liberty and property) If gov’t fails the people, they have the right to overthrow it
Ideas on Gov’t ► Best gov’t is where leader is limited and is accepted by all citizens (democracy)
Impact ► Used as the basis for American, French and Latin Revolutions in the 1700’s and for modern democracy Impact
wrote the Spirit of Laws (1748) The Baron de Montesquieu
Views & Beliefs ► Gov’t should be separated into three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. ► This would prevent tyranny by each branch being able to “check” the other two.
Ideas on Gov’t ► Favored limited monarchy (studied British, Chinese, & Native American gov’t)
Impact ► Used as the basis for the structure of the American gov’t (checks and balances) Impact
Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote The Social Contract (1762)
Views & Beliefs People are naturally good but are corrupted by the inequality of society. People should give up some rights for the common good. The “general will” of the people is for good. The individual should be subordinate to the community.
Ideas on Gov’t Two Views ► Democracy –authority given to people OR ► Communism- good of the community over the individual
Impact ► His ideas helped spark the French Revolution. Impact
Views & Beliefs The free market- the natural forces of supply and demand, should be allowed to operate and regulate business. (If there is a demand for goods, suppliers will meet it) Believed in laissez-faire- allowing business to operate without gov’t interference.
Ideas on Gov’t Any gov’t that promotes laissez-faire economics
Impact ► Gave rise to capitalism and the Industrial Revolution Impact
Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women Supporter of women’s rights Supporter of women’s rights Argued that girls needed education as well as boys Argued that girls needed education as well as boys C. Mary Wollstonecraft
► Mary Wollstonecraft’s daughter, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, would write the classic novel Frankenstein. DON’T WRITE
III. Spread of Ideas A. The printing press spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe.
B. Methods of Communication: 1. Diderot’s Encyclopedia: Political thoughts, writings and ideas all in one place.
2. Salons ► Informal social gatherings ► writers, artists, philosophers exchanged ideas & points of view ► Many women organized salons and used them to learn about the issues of the day.
IV. Enlightened Despots ► Absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change. Frederick the Great (Prussia) Catherine the Great (Russia) Joseph II (Austria)
V. Arts and Literature ► The middle class (merchants and town officials) influenced art and music. Baroque: A grand, bright style of art Rococo Style: Delicate Porcelain, portraits, tapestries Music: Composers- Bach, Mozart, Handel
VI. Effects Enlightenment ideas inspired a belief of personal freedom and equality. Enlightenment ideas inspired a belief of personal freedom and equality. These concepts, along with challenges to authority, caused a growth of democracy. These concepts, along with challenges to authority, caused a growth of democracy. The Enlightenment would contribute to an age of revolution! The Enlightenment would contribute to an age of revolution!