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The Enlightenment CH 17 section 1& 2 Unit 7 PP # 3.

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1 The Enlightenment CH 17 section 1& 2 Unit 7 PP # 3

2 The Enlightenment The scientific revolution as applied to the field of human behavior –Use methods of natural science to examine and understand all aspects of life –By doing this you discover laws of human society (fields of political science, sociology etc.) –The result is the creation of better societies and better people

3 Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Believed that mans natural state was conflict because they always acted in self interest Power to govern comes from the people but they transfer it to a monarch by an implicit social contract The King is absolute and in return the people receive law and order Author of Leviathan

4 John Locke (1632-1704) Concept of natural rights explained in his Second Treatise on Civil Government (1690) People establish governments to protect “Life, liberty and property” If a government fails to protect these rights they become a tyranny and the people have right to rebel Church and state should be seperate

5 Locke On Education In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding he stated that man is born a “blank slate” or Tabula Rasa and learns from experience –The old belief was that man was born with certain ideas and ways of thinking –Locke called for the reform of social and educational institutions that he believed played a major role in the development of human beings

6 The Philosophes French social critics who turned away from traditional beliefs and relied on reason to guide them (reformers not revolutionaries) –Rejected the authority of the Church and created their own religion Deism –Committed to reforming society –Often in trouble with the law for writings on religion and government Used satire

7 The Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) Upper class lawyer and author The Persian Letters (1721) –Critique of 17 th Century French society written from the perspective of Persian travelers The Spirit of the Laws (1748) –One of the greatest works on social science –Studied all forms of government Checks and balances 3 branches of government

8 Voltaire (1694-1788) Struggled his entire life against legal injustice and class inequalities before the law (70 books) –Best government was an enlightened monarch The Candide: railed against war and religious persecution (no toleration) –Hated the Church (no room for human improvement)

9 Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712- 1778) Born poor in Switzerland Supporter of personal freedom Believed that civilization (materialism,production) and rationalism corrupted man who was born basically good Wrote Emile and put forward the concept of the noble savage Wrote The Social Contract in which he outlined a plan emphasizing direct democracy and the “general will”

10 Denis Diderot (1713-1784) Attempted to examine the whole of human knowledge from A-Z Greater knowledge = greater human happiness Over 17 years they edited 21 volumes of what became known as The Encyclopedia Contributions from all of the philosophes on matters such as blindness, slavery, religion, atheism, the soul etc.. Pope placed it on The Index

11 Women in the Enlightenment Wealthy female patrons would organize salons where Philosophes could present papers and spread their ideas Some women began to challenge their traditional Roles (Mary Wollstonecraft)

12 New economic thought Both the French and Adam Smith begin to argue against Mercantilism The Wealth of Nations –Free markets –Competition –Laissez-Faire

13 Unit 8 PP # 2 Chapter 17 section 2 Enlightenment ideas spread Enlightened monarchs

14 Catherine II (the Great) Limited reforms –No torture –Religious toleration –Kept serfdom

15 Frederick II Frederick II (r. 1740-1786) Frederick II King of Prussia –Reduced torture –Less censorship –Religious toleration –Kept Serfdom

16 Joseph II (Austria) 1741-1790 Traveled in secret to learn his subjects problems –Abolished serfdom Revoked after his death –Ended censorship –Religious toleration

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