Presentation on theme: "What does it mean to be ‘Enlightened’? Is the U.S. an enlightened nation? How have we been influenced by ‘Enlightenment’ thinking, and are we still being."— Presentation transcript:
What does it mean to be ‘Enlightened’? Is the U.S. an enlightened nation? How have we been influenced by ‘Enlightenment’ thinking, and are we still being influenced by these ideas?
The Enlightenment – a philosophical movement of the 18 th century, characterized by belief in the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious, and educational doctrine.
What Led to ‘The Enlightenment’ Enlightenment Humanism Reason & Knowledge Secularism The Reformation The Scientific Revolution The Renaissance
The Age of Enlightenment 1700’s Rationalism-belief that human nature could be logically explained using reason & the Scientific Method Ideas about secularism and individualism Enlightenment thinkers were called Philosophes
Thomas Hobbes The natural condition of humans is one of continuous conflict and competition Said life is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”. Believed in a social contract, where people give up individual liberties in return for social order Believed anarchy to be a state of nature. Supporter of absolute monarchy Wrote Leviathan (1651)
John Locke Believed in individual natural rights – Life – Liberty – Property People would not-and could not willingly surrender their fundamental natural rights. Government existed to protect those rights, & if they didn’t, it should be overthrown. Supporter of Democracy Wrote Two Treatises on Government
Baron de Montesquieu His idea of checks and balances would influence the U.S. Constitution Saw humans life as a comedy and satire. Division of power into 3 branches Climate and Circumstances determine the form of governments Published The Spirit of theLaws (1748)
Voltaire Strong supporter of Freedom of Speech, Thought, & Religion Humans are liars, traitors, ingrates, thieves, misers, killers, fanatics, hypocrites, fools and so on. Yet, it’s normal. Believed Gov’ts should ensure personal freedoms Satirist who wrote about the French Monarchy, the nobility, and the church Candide & Philosophical Letters Imprisoned twice in France for his views
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Believed in Popular Sovereignty Argued people are naturally good, but society corrupts them through environment, education and laws. Opposed strong government. Government created and controlled by the people. Did not trust reason believing that it brought corruption and misery. Published The Social Contract(1762)
Denis Diderot Combine articles of leading Philosophes covering every subject possible. Leading philosophes of the time contributed articles on everything from criticizing aspects of society, the church, government, the slave trade, torture, taxes, and war Created The Encyclopedia
Mary Wollstonecraft Early spokesperson for Women’s Rights Argued the ideals of equality should be extended to women as well as men. Governments should extend political rights to women as well Women should also enjoy educational freedoms as well WroteA Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)
Adam Smith Adam Smith considered the Father of modern Economics Wrote the Wealth Of Nations –Argues that free market should be allowed to regulate business not the government –Mercantilism is the devil Laissez Faire –To leave alone. Let business to operate with little government intervention