Presentation on theme: " The success of the Scientific Revolution convinced people of the ability and power of human reason. ◦ We can make laws for physics can’t we? Why not."— Presentation transcript:
The success of the Scientific Revolution convinced people of the ability and power of human reason. ◦ We can make laws for physics can’t we? Why not use reason to make laws to discover natural laws, too? Natural Laws Laws that govern human nature Thus begins a new revolution, a thinking revolution called Enlightenment
An era for which Enlightenment thinkers or philosophes (lover of wisdom) used logic and reason to solve the problems of society, economy and politics. What set of rules were previously governing the socio-economic-political realm?
PhilosopherHobbesLockeRousseauMontesquieu Main WorkLeviathan View of human nature People are “naturally happy, tolerant and reasonable.” (the textbook does not directly answer this question, but given what you know, of his ideas, what do you think he believed in?) (the textbook does not directly answer this question, but give what you know, of his ideas, what do you think he believed in?) Ideal government An ideal government imposes order to avoid the violent and brutish natural of humans. Preferred form of government DemocracyRepublican Democracy with a separation of powers
Thomas HobbesJohn Locke Wrote Leviathan. People are naturally cruel. ◦ If not ruled, people will fight, steal, kill and oppress. His social contracts meant a powerful government would rule and create order with a monarchy. Absolute monarchs can impose order efficiently. Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Thought people were naturally good. Believed in natural rights born with the right to life, liberty and property. ◦ Gov’ts role is to protect those rights ◦ Gov’t should have limited power and legitimate authority. ◦ If a gov’t doesn’t protect rights, people should overthrow it.
Criticized an absolute monarchy. Said a government should separate powers and branches should be able to check themselves. Wrote The Spirit of the Laws.
Denis Diderot ◦ Produced a 28-volume Encyclopedia ◦ Used this as a way not just to explain things but to spread philosophies of the day Many entries written by his contemporaries Helped Enlightenment ideas spread throughout Europe Voltaire ◦ Freedom of thought and speech ◦ Through writing he exposed the corruption of the church and French government ◦ He was exiled and his books were even banned or burned.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau ◦ Thought people were naturally good BUT the evils of society (particularly the unequal distribution of wealth) corrupted them. ◦ Felt government was necessary but controls should be limited and freely elected. ◦ Felt the individual should do it’s part to support society and community as a whole.
Women began to demand equal protection of natural rights. Mary Wollstonecraft ◦ Yes, you should be a good mother (being a Feminist doesn’t mean you’re not feminine) ◦ Believed in independence from a husband (actually lived in a separate house from hers) ◦ Women must, through education, be given the same tools to participate in society and government as men.
Laissez Faire ◦ Rejected mercantilism, a type of economy for which the government regulated trade and the like Acquired wealth through trade ◦ Laissez faire allowed business to operate with little interference from the government Acquired wealth through the extraction of raw materials from the earth Supported free trade (opposed tariffs)
Adam Smith ◦ Wrote The Wealth of Nations ◦ Said the free market should regulate businesses ◦ Showed how manufacturing, wage, profits and growth to supply and demand.
Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine II of Russia or Joseph II of Austria? 1. Gut response??? 2. Now lets analyze 1.Identify the reforms of each 2.Identify the limits of the reformers? How were all of them somewhat constrained? Who limited their reforms?