Presentation on theme: "5/8 Focus: 5/8 Focus: – European thinkers developed new ideas about government and society during the enlightenment Do Now: Do Now: – What was the symbol."— Presentation transcript:
5/8 Focus: 5/8 Focus: – European thinkers developed new ideas about government and society during the enlightenment Do Now: Do Now: – What was the symbol of Louis XIV power?
The Scientific Revolution Period in the 1500’s and 1600’s Scientific thinkers began using observation and experimentation to explain the natural world – Use of the Scientific Method Sir Francis Bacon
The Scientific Revolution Before the Scientific Revolution Religious teachings and traditional beliefs explained the universe and how the world worked After the Scientific Revolution Observation and experimentation used to explain natural world and solve problems Scientific Method Examination of natural laws governing the universe – Ex. The Laws of Gravity
Rene Descartes French thinker who emphasized the use of reason to discover truth rather than relying on tradition and religion – A process of thinking carefully about something in order to make a judgment
The Enlightenment The use of reason to guide people’s thoughts about philosophy, society, and government – Known as the Age of Reason – Challenged traditional authority Introduced new ways of viewing: – Government – Authority – Power – Law
Natural Law Writers and philosophers tried to use reason to discover laws that govern human behavior
Philosophes Paris, France became a meeting place for enlightenment philosophers Met in salons – Social gatherings host by wealthy French women – Discussed politics and ideas about human nature
Philosophes Five core beliefs: – Reason – Nature/Natural laws – Happiness Living by nature’s law – Progress Trying to improve society – Liberty Reason could set society free
Thomas Hobbes English philosopher; author of the Leviathan People are naturally greedy and selfish Absolute monarchs were needed to create a peaceful society – People gave up freedom to the monarch in return for order in society
John Locke English philosopher; Two Treatises on Government natural Believed all men were born with certain natural rights – Life, liberty, and property People form governments to protect those rights – Government can be overthrown if those rights are not protected
Closure What influence did the Scientific Revolution have on the Enlightenment? What European city became the main center for the enlightenment?
5/9 Focus: 5/9 Focus: – Enlightenment philosophers created new assumptions about the proper use of power, who had authority, and what made up a good government Do Now: Do Now: – Identify the natural rights that Locke believed all people were born with.
Rousseau French philosopher; wrote The Social Contract Believed people were naturally good but became corrupted by evils of society – Unequal distribution of property – Scarcity of resources Thought all people were equal – Titles of nobility should be abolished
Rousseau The social contract was an agreement between free individuals to create a society, make laws and a government People gave up certain freedoms/self interests to this government for the common good
Rousseau Government should be based on the will of the people – “The general will” democracy – Citizens and rulers must follow the will of the people – Majority should always work for the common good
Baron de Montesquieu French philosopher; On the Spirit of Laws wrote that powers of government should be separated between 3 branches – Legislative – Judicial – Executive Checks and balances prevent tyranny and abuse of power
Voltaire French philosopher who wrote about the importance of freedom of speech, religious freedom, and tolerance – Criticized the French government and the Catholic Church
Spread of Enlightenment Ideas Enlightenment ideas spread through salons in Paris, France Encyclopedia – French philosopher Denis Diderot compiled enlightenment ideas in a book – Was banned by French government and the Catholic Church Ideas spread through books, newspapers, and pamphlets
Closure Identify the author of the book The Social Contract. According to Rousseau, what were all citizens obligated to follow? According to Montesquieu, what was the best way to prevent tyranny and abuse of power in government?
5/10 Focus: 5/10 Focus: – Many Europeans, including some monarchs, were influenced by enlightenment ideas and tried to change the old order. Do Now: Do Now: – According to Montesquieu, what was the best way to prevent tyranny and abuse of power in government?
Enlightened Despots Some absolute monarchs accepted Enlightenment ideas Used their power to reform society – Wanted to strengthen their countries – Increase effectiveness of their rule
Maria Theresa ruler who introduced reforms in the 1700’s to Austria – Forced nobles and clergy to pay taxes – Reduced taxes on the peasants – Made primary education available to children
Joseph II Ruled Austria from 1778-1790 – Son of Maria Theresa Introduced legal and government reforms – reforms and freedom of the press – Supported religious toleration – Abolished serfdom Many of his reforms were undone after his death
Catherine the Great Russian Czarina 1762- 1796 Influenced by Voltaire and Montesquieu – Read their works and corresponded with both philosophers
Catherine the Great Tried to reform and modernize Russia – Formed commission to reform laws Allowed input from nobles and peasants – Allowed religious tolerance – Abolished torture and capital punishment A serf revolt in 1773 led Catherine to end many of reforms she started – Nobles given absolute power over serfs
Frederick the Great Prussian King 1740-1786 Introduced reforms to German state of Prussia – Religious freedom – Reduced government censorship – Improved education Referred to himself as “ the first servant of the state”
Impact of the Enlightenment Governments and the Church to try to suppress Enlightenment ideas – Censorship Removing politically dangerous ideas and info from books, newspapers, etc. – Books bans & book burnings – Arrest of some enlightenment philosophers
Impact of the Enlightenment Enlightenment ideas helped fuel the growth of democracy – Individualism – Personal freedom – Equality of all people
Impact of the Enlightenment Growth of nationalism as people in countries came together to fight for democratic government – Feeling of pride and devotion to one’s country Helped contribute to outbreak revolutions in Europe and America
Closure What does the term enlightened despot refer to? Identify two impacts of the Enlightenment? How did some governments and the Church try to suppress Enlightenment ideas?