Presentation on theme: "Burns PAGES 410-414 LEQ: HOW DOES THE TYPE OF BURN DETERMINE THE TYPE OF TREATMENT PROVIDED?"— Presentation transcript:
Burns PAGES 410-414 LEQ: HOW DOES THE TYPE OF BURN DETERMINE THE TYPE OF TREATMENT PROVIDED?
Burns A burn is an injury that can be caused by fire, heat, chemical agents, radiation, and/or electricity. Classified as: 1 st, 2 nd or 3 rd Degree Can easily become infected Can be life threatening
First Degree Burns Usually Superficial Least Severe Only the top layer, epidermis, and usually heals in 5-6 days without scaring Maybe some mild swelling, and the victim feels pain 3 common causes are: sunburn, brief contact with hot items or steam, and exposure to the skin to a weak acid or alkali
Second Degree Burns Partial Thickness Burn Burns Epidermis and Dermis Blisters forming is the key to DX Mottled, Swelling, Wet, and Painful 3-4 Weeks to heal Cause Excessive Exposure to Sun, Radiation, Hot or Boiling Liquids, or Fire
Third Degree Burns Full Thickness Burn Most Severe Burn and involves ALL Layers of the skin plus underlying tissue White, Red, Brown, or Charred Appearance Maybe painful or painless Can be life-threatening because of fluid loss, infection, or shock Causes : Fire, Flames, Prolonged contact w Hot objects, Electricity, or Immersion in hot or boiling liquids
First Aid for Burns Directed toward removing the heat source Cooling the affected skin Covering the burn Relieving pain Observing and treating shock Preventing infection
1 st Degree TX Remove from heat source Cool with running water or cool rag for several minutes Can give mild pain med (Advil, Motrin, Tylenol) If >15% of an adult or 10% of a child is burned, seek medical help DO NOT APPLY ICE or ICE WATER
1 st Degree Continued After the pain subsides, use a dry, sterile gauze to blot the area dry Apply a dry sterile dressing to prevent infection Use non-adhesive dressing if available Elevate if possible to swelling and if more than 15% of an adult, 10% of a child, or the victim appears to be in shock; contact EMS
2 nd Degree Burn TX Same as 1 st Degree Do NOT break open any blisters because doing so will cause an open wound Call EMS if the burn is severe, signs of shock occurs, or the burn is on the face or groin area
3 rd Degree Burn TX Cover the burn with a moistened, thick sterile dressing and elevate if possible If particles of clothing have melted or are still attached to the victim, do NOT attempt to remove it Watch for respiratory distress, and provide CPR or TX for Shock as needed until EMS arrives
Rules Of Nines Used to calculate the percentage of body surface burned. Practice: Persons legs and arms are burned- what is the percentage burned?
Special Situations Do NOT apply cotton, tissues, ointment, powders, oils, grease, butter, or any other substance to the burned area unless you are instructed to do so by the Doctor
Chemical Burns Flush the area with large amounts of water for 15-30 minutes until medical help arrives Gently remove any clothing or jewelry that is contaminated Be careful and avoid handling contaminated items with your bare skin Watch for S/S of Shock and wait for EMS
Burns to the Eyes If irritated by fumes or chemicals, remove glasses or contacts immediately and flush the effected eye for 15-30 minutes while holding the eyelid open and pouring from the nose outward or until medical help arrives If only one eye is affected, tilt that eye down and take care while flushing in order to avoid contaminating the unaffected eye
Burns to the Eyes First Aid TX Flush the Eye Have the person immediately rinse the eye or eyes under a faucet, in a gentle shower, or with a clean container of water. Keep the person’s face so that the injured eye is down and to the side. Avoid spraying a high-pressure water stream into the eye or eyes. Flush with lukewarm water for 15 to 30 minutes. For severe burns, continue flushing until you see a doctor or you arrive in an emergency room. The person should keep the eye open as wide as possible. Wash the person's hands thoroughly to make sure no chemical is still on them. Flush the eye to remove contact lenses. If they do not come out, try to gently remove them AFTER flushing. Do not rub the eye or place a bandage over the eye. While waiting for medical care, have the person wear sunglasses to decrease light sensitivity.
Dehydration Fluid loss can occur very quickly with severe burns, so shock is frequently associated with the burn victim High Risk for INFECTION Be alert for any S/S of Shock Remain calm, reassure the victim, and help quickly while being organized.