Presentation on theme: "Europe Between the Wars. Economic Consequences WWI total cost over $350 billion Most countries raised taxes to pay for war International trade."— Presentation transcript:
Europe Between the Wars
Economic Consequences WWI total cost over $350 billion Most countries raised taxes to pay for war International trade suffered Tariffs (taxes) raised on imports
Reparations?? Germany in state of economic disaster Didn’t raise taxes during war, just printed more $$ Led to inflation 1924: Dawes Plan = $200 million loan from American banks to Germany 1929: German factories back at pre-war production Video: What is Inflation?
So what went wrong?? THE GREAT DEPRESSION October 29, 1929 (Black Tuesday) U.S. Stock Market crashed American bankers demanded repayment of loans American investors withdrew $$ from Europe Banks worldwide started failing
Political Consequences League of Nations created New countries created in Eastern Europe Many nations turn to military dictatorships (Russia, Italy, Germany) US emerges as a world power
The Rise of Fascism New militant political system Attractive to people angered by the Treaty of Versailles and economic depression Focused on loyalty to the state and obedience to the leader
Fascist Promises 1. Revive the economy 2. Punish those responsible for hard times 3. Restore national pride
Key Elements of Fascism Extreme nationalism Nations must struggle – peaceful states doomed to be conquered Loyalty to leader (dictator) Often wore uniforms, used special salutes, and held mass rallies
Communism vs. Fascism Similarities: Ruled by dictators Only one political party allowed Denied individual rights Country more important than individual No democracy
Communism vs. Fascism Communism No social classes Appealed to working class people Internationalists - unite workers worldwide Fascism Keep social classes – everyone has a place Appealed to aristocrats, industrialists, war veterans, and middle class Nationalists – all about their own country
Fascism in Germany Weimer Republic blamed for the accepting the Treaty of Versailles and economic failures The people are looking for SALVATION
Hitler in WWI Austrian citizen WWI chance for Germany to take its rightful place as the world’s greatest power Joined the German Army as a “runner” Brought messages from trench to trench
Hitler in WWI Awarded Iron Cross twice (for bravery) Wounded twice Temporarily blinded by poison gas Never rose far in the ranks because he was Austrian After the war, Hitler would head back to Germany truly believing Germany had been robbed of victory!
The Nazi Party 1919: joined political group that thought Germany needed to get rid of the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism “National Socialist German Workers Party” Nazi for short Hitler became the leader within 2 years
Activity : Nazi Party Platform What did the Nazis believe?
Hitler’s Political Ideas 1. Germany had been betrayed and must regain its world position 2. Communists must be removed from positions of power 3. Jews must be removed from positions of power 4. German economy must be rebuilt
Beer Hall Putsch Planned to take control of gov’t by force Oct 1923: Nazis marched on Munich Known as the Beer Hall Putsch FAILED! Hitler jailed! Hitler
Hitler in Jail Realizes he can’t take over gov’t by force – will have to slowly gain control through legal elections While stuck in jail writes a book detailing his ideas/plans
Mein Kampf Translates to “My Struggle” Main points: Germans were the master race (Aryans) Non-Aryans were inferior (Jews, Slavs, Gypsies) Treaty of Versailles = outrage Germany overcrowded and needed more lebensraum (living space) Gain space by conquering Russia and Eastern Europe
Becoming Chancellor Nazis elected to the the Reichstag (German gov’t) 1932: Nazi Party largest political party Jan. 30, 1933: Hitler appointed Chancellor Second in command behind Pres. Paul von Hindenburg Hindenburg and Hitler
German Government Feb 1933: Fire broke out the Reichstag Nazis blame fire on communists Public opinion allows Nazis to win major elections instead of communists Aug 1934: Hindenburg dies Video Clip: Hitler
Hitler in Power Hitler combined offices of Chancellor and President, declared himself the Fuhrer (leader) 1. Enabling Acts: suspended the civil rights of the German people 2. No political parties (opponents arrested and killed) 3. S.S. (Schutzstaffel) created (elite police unit) 4. Economy put under government control 5. Children required to join the Hitler Youth 6. Widespread propaganda Churches and schools not allowed to criticize Nazis
Activity : Do You Take the Oath?
“When the Führer took power in 1933, the German people's body was severely ill. The poison of foreign worldviews ran through the veins of all the people's organisms. Hardly anyone was immune. Then Providence sent the German people a doctor, the Führer. He knew the disease; he know that the German people suffered from a corruption of its racial strength. Using every possible medication, including if necessary the most radical, the bacterium was removed from the people's body. Our people is becoming racially healthy once more. But our people is not alone in the world. It is surrounded by a ring of peoples. Most peoples today still suffer from the same disease that the German people once suffered. They are nearing racial collapse, especially the European peoples. Therefore, the Führer wants other peoples to follow the holy laws of blood that we follow, for mixing with widely foreign races means the betrayal of the blood of each people, and eventual decline. The fundamental reason for excluding foreign-raced groups from a people's body is not discrimination or contempt, but rather the realization of otherness. Only through such thinking will the peoples again become healthy, and able to respect each other.” -Excerpt from a 5 th Grade Textbook, Germany, 1935.