2Economic Consequences WWI total cost over $350 billionMost countries raised taxes to pay for warInternational trade sufferedTariffs (taxes) raised on imports
3Reparations??Germany in state of economic disasterDidn’t raise taxes during war, just printed more $$Led to inflation1924: Dawes Plan = $200 million loan from American banks to Germany1929: German factories back at pre-war productionVideo: What is Inflation?
5October 29, 1929 (Black Tuesday) U.S. Stock Market crashed So what went wrong??THE GREAT DEPRESSIONOctober 29, 1929 (Black Tuesday) U.S. Stock Market crashedAmerican bankers demanded repayment of loansAmerican investors withdrew $$ from EuropeBanks worldwide started failing
6Political Consequences League of Nations createdNew countries created in Eastern EuropeMany nations turn to military dictatorships (Russia, Italy, Germany)US emerges as a world power
7The Rise of Fascism New militant political system Attractive to people angered by the Treaty of Versailles and economic depressionFocused on loyalty to the state and obedience to the leader
8Fascist Promises Revive the economy Punish those responsible for hard timesRestore national pride
9Key Elements of Fascism Extreme nationalismNations must struggle – peaceful states doomed to be conqueredLoyalty to leader (dictator)Often wore uniforms, used special salutes, and held mass rallies
11Communism vs. Fascism Similarities: Ruled by dictators Only one political party allowedDenied individual rightsCountry more important than individualNo democracy
12Communism vs. Fascism Communism No social classes Appealed to working class peopleInternationalists - unite workers worldwideFascismKeep social classes –everyone has a placeAppealed to aristocrats, industrialists, war veterans, and middle classNationalists – all about their own country
13Fascism in GermanyWeimer Republic blamed for the accepting the Treaty of Versailles and economic failuresThe people are looking for SALVATION
14Hitler in WWI Austrian citizen WWI chance for Germany to take its rightful place as the world’s greatest powerJoined the German Army as a “runner”Brought messages from trench to trench
15Hitler in WWI Awarded Iron Cross twice (for bravery) Wounded twice Temporarily blinded by poison gasNever rose far in the ranks because he was AustrianAfter the war, Hitler would head back to Germanytruly believing Germany had been robbed of victory!
16The Nazi Party1919: joined political group that thought Germany needed to get rid of the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism“National Socialist German Workers Party”Nazi for shortHitler became the leader within 2 years
17Activity: Nazi Party Platform What did the Nazis believe?
18Hitler’s Political Ideas Germany had been betrayed and must regain its world positionCommunists must be removed from positions of powerJews must be removed from positions of powerGerman economy must be rebuilt
19Beer Hall Putsch Planned to take control of gov’t by force Oct 1923: Nazis marched on MunichKnown as the Beer Hall PutschFAILED! Hitler jailed!Hitler
20Hitler in JailRealizes he can’t take over gov’t by force – will have to slowly gain control through legal electionsWhile stuck in jail writes a book detailing his ideas/plans
21Mein Kampf Translates to “My Struggle” Main points: Germans were the master race (Aryans)Non-Aryans were inferior (Jews, Slavs, Gypsies)Treaty of Versailles = outrageGermany overcrowded and needed more lebensraum (living space)Gain space by conquering Russia and Eastern Europe
22Becoming Chancellor Nazis elected to the the Reichstag (German gov’t) 1932: Nazi Party largest political partyJan. 30, 1933: Hitler appointed ChancellorSecond in command behind Pres. Paul von HindenburgHindenburg and Hitler
24German Government Feb 1933: Fire broke out the Reichstag Nazis blame fire on communistsPublic opinion allows Nazis to win major elections instead of communistsAug 1934: Hindenburg diesVideo Clip: Hitler
26Hitler in PowerHitler combined offices of Chancellor and President, declared himself the Fuhrer (leader)Enabling Acts: suspended the civil rights of the German peopleNo political parties (opponents arrested and killed)S.S. (Schutzstaffel) created (elite police unit)Economy put under government controlChildren required to join the Hitler YouthWidespread propagandaChurches and schools not allowed to criticize Nazis
28“When the Führer took power in 1933, the German people's body was severely ill. The poison of foreign worldviews ran through the veins of all the people's organisms. Hardly anyone was immune. Then Providence sent the German people a doctor, the Führer. He knew the disease; he know that the German people suffered from a corruption of its racial strength. Using every possible medication, including if necessary the most radical, the bacterium was removed from the people's body. Our people is becoming racially healthy once more.But our people is not alone in the world. It is surrounded by a ring of peoples. Most peoples today still suffer from the same disease that the German people once suffered. They are nearing racial collapse, especially the European peoples. Therefore, the Führer wants other peoples to follow the holy laws of blood that we follow, for mixing with widely foreign races means the betrayal of the blood of each people, and eventual decline. The fundamental reason for excluding foreign-raced groups from a people's body is not discrimination or contempt, but rather the realization of otherness. Only through such thinking will the peoples again become healthy, and able to respect each other.”-Excerpt from a 5th Grade Textbook, Germany, 1935.