Student with significant behavioural challengesFrustrated teamMessy dataExpectation
Frequent episodes of aggression since K Escalation to point of restraint and use of a time-out room Frequent consultations from various competent professionals Mounds of ABC dataInconclusive results from interviews Direct observations a challenge with so many different variables in play at once
Setting up situations in which you are manipulating the antecedent and providing a consequence when the target behaviour occurs. Purpose: to identify the function of the behaviour (what is maintaining the behaviour) “Allergy test” Large body of research to support the use of this methodology
Iwata, B, et al, (2000). Skill acquisition in the implementation of functional analysis methodology. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 181-194. Taught undergraduate students how to conduct Functional Analysis conditions within 2 hours by explaining the procedures, modeling and giving feedback. Article describes how to carry out the functional analysis.
Alone (Automatic Reinforcement) Give student opportunity to engage in the problem behaviour without consequence Attention Provide student with attention when behaviour occurs Play (Control condition) Provide an enriched environment with no demands and provide attention on a frequent basis Demand (Escape) Allow student to escape the task demand when behaviour occurs
Tangible Provide student with a desired item when the behaviour occurs (choose the item that you suspect the student is engaging in the behaviour to get)
This is not rocket science! Let me look into it Only for the elite
Undergraduate students (Iwata et al., 2000) B.A. level therapists (Moore et al. 2002) Teachers (Wallace et al., 2004) Parents taught how to carry out FA through teleconferencing (Barretto et al., 2006)
Target behaviour: verbal complaints and whining (precursor behaviour to aggression) 5 sessions: Four 10 minute conditions in which we set up the situation to potentially evoke the behaviour and arrange a specific consequence. Data Collection: Recorded when behaviour occurred. Result: More frequent behaviour in attention condition.
Identify your target behaviour Follow instructions Provide a consequence when the target behaviour occurs Record behaviour when it occurs Interpret the data
When you understand the function of the behaviour, the effectiveness of the intervention can be significantly improved.
Helps to identify what the student needs to learn to replace the target behaviour (DRA). Provides convincing data for staff to change their own behaviour (EXTINCTION). Helps to know what reinforcer you should make available so that the student isn’t as motivated to seek it out (NON- CONTINGENT REINFORCEMENT)
2 minute demonstration of each condition Target behaviour : Hit the table with open hand or closed fist, with enough force so that it can be heard by the teacher. Non-examples: touching the table; brushing against the table. Data collection method: Frequency count Task: Observe each assessment condition and record each occurrence of the behaviour
Frequency Count Condition Frequency of Behaviour Totals Attention / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /18 Demand / / /3 Play 0 Alone 0 (Note: For each condition presented, write a tally during the interval then record the totals)
Adult present, but no social interaction occurs. No access to toys, leisure materials or preferred items. Antecedent Individual engages in the target behaviour Behaviour When target behaviour occurs, do not do or say anything. Do not make eye contact or make changes in facial expressions. Consequence
If a target behaviour occurs most frequently in this condition then, it is likely that the behaviour itself produces its own reinforcer (self- stimulation).
Leisure and play materials available Inform individual that you will be busy Provide no further attention Antecedent Individual engages in target behaviour Behaviour When target behaviour occurs, approach individual and make a statement of concern. You can pair comment with brief physical contact. e.g. "Don't do that, you might get hurt." Consequence
If a target behaviour occurs most frequently in this condition then, it is likely that the behaviour is maintained by attention.
Free access to toys, leisure materials, and known preferred activities. At 30-second intervals, approach the student and make a comment for 5-10 seconds Respond to any appropriate social behaviour Antecedent Individual engages in target behaviour Behaviour There are no consequences for problem behavior, except that attention should be delayed if problem behavior occurs just as attention is about to be delivered. Consequence
It is not expected that the student will engage in the behaviour at a high frequency during this condition. If a target behaviour occurs frequently in this condition then, it is likely that the behaviour itself produces its own reinforcer (self-stimulation).
If a target behaviour occurs frequently in this condition and in the demand condition then, it is likely that the behaviour is maintained by escape from social interaction in general.
Present relevant task demands; including known disliked tasks. Client complies: Deliver praise. If does not comply within 5 seconds, demonstrate If does not comply within 5 seconds, physically prompt. Provide continuous demands until end of session Antecedent Individual engages in target behaviour Behaviour When target behaviour occurs, the demand is immediately removed /terminated without comment and presented again after 20-30 seconds. Consequence
If a target behaviour occurs most frequently in this condition Then it is likely that the behaviour is maintained by escape from task demands.
2 minute demonstration Target behaviour : Scratching/rubbing head (any hand motion on head) Scratching can be of any level of intensity. Data collection method: Partial Interval Task: Observe the assessment condition and record whether the behaviour occurred at any point during the interval.
Partial Interval: Mark a “+” in the interval box when the behaviour occurs during any part of the interval Mark a “–“ if the behaviour does not occur at all during the interval. Intervals are every 10 seconds in this example. (They can also be 20 seconds in other situations). 1234567891011121314151617181920 % of intervals “+” Tangible
Provide brief access to preferred item, then remove the item and ignore the student. Antecedent Individual engages in target behaviour Behaviour When target behaviour occurs, provide brief access to the item then remove it again and ignore. Consequence
If a target behaviour occurs most frequently in this condition then, it is likely that the behaviour is maintained by access to an item.
Schlichenmeyer, K.J., et al (2013) Provides ideas on how to modify conditions to assess different antecedents. Ex. Demand condition: easy task/hard task Attention condition: attention provided by peer vs adult; different types of attention, Etc.
Grade 8 student Target behaviour: looking at and pointing to other people’s feet Informal staff interviews and multiple observations FA conducted in one morning – 2 hours total 5 conditions (Attention ; Demand ; Alone ; Play ; Tangible ) Each condition lasted 5 minutes (brief FA) Consultant conducted FA; EA held video camera or left the room Data collected afterwards by watching video (permanent product)
Candidates for FA: Behaviour interferes significantly with learning; “nothing working”; Behaviour Support Plan in place but behaviour is worsening; Behaviour is severe and chronic and FA would be faster than another approach; Descriptive FBA was done but function is still unclear
Careful and Collaborative Planning Informed consent and scheduling Target Behaviour: CLEAR definition (precursor behaviours less risky) Space: classroom? room away from ongoing activity? Participant Roles: instructor and data collector; practice? tape? Materials: preferred, non-preferred
Careful Planning Conditions : order? duration? Identify potential risks Exit strategy: What level of behaviour would indicate that session should be shortened or stopped? Try out with a non aggressive behaviour
What did you learn from this session? Were there any surprises? Identify and discuss a case where this approach may be of benefit. What are some steps you would need to do to get started? What are your questions for the presenters?
Barretto A, Wacker D.P, Harding J, Lee J, Berg W. Using telemedicine to conduct behavioral assessments. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 2006;39:333–340. Iwata, B, et al, (2000). Skill acquisition in the implementation of functional analysis methodology. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 181-194. Moore J.W, Edwards R.P, Sterling-Turner H.E, Riley J, DuBard M, McGeorge A. Teacher acquisition of functional analysis methodology. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 2002;35:73–77. Schlichenmeyer, K.J., et al (2013). Idiosyncratic variables that affect functional analysis outcomes: A Review (2001- 2010). Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46, 339-348. Wallace M.D, Doney J.K, Mintz-Resudek C.M, Tarbox R.S.F. Training educators to implement functional analyses. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 2004;37:89–92.