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Kaori G. Nepo, M.Ed., BCBA. FBA: Functional Behavior Assessment To create hypotheses about the functional relationship between environmental stimuli-

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Presentation on theme: "Kaori G. Nepo, M.Ed., BCBA. FBA: Functional Behavior Assessment To create hypotheses about the functional relationship between environmental stimuli-"— Presentation transcript:

1 Kaori G. Nepo, M.Ed., BCBA

2 FBA: Functional Behavior Assessment To create hypotheses about the functional relationship between environmental stimuli- behaviors Why? Avoid/Eliminate ineffective interventions To develop effective interventions Ensure the effectiveness of interventions

3 Three Term Contingency A(S D ) – B(R) – C(S R+ /S R- /S P+ /S P- ) Antecedent : a stimulus which occurs before a behavior Behavior/ Response : movement or action by an individual Consequences : a stimulus which is produced by a behavior

4 Four Term Contingency MO A-B-C Motivating Operation (MO): the environmental changes that alter the reinforcing value of stimulus (and the frequency of a behavior) EO: Establishing Operation AO: Abolishing Operation

5 Function vs. Topography Function: purpose of behaviors Topography: how the behavior looks like Behaviors look same but different functions C.f. tantrums for attention or escape Behaviors look different but same functions C.f. manding

6 Function Positive Reinforcement: S R+ Social Attention Tangible Automatic Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement: S R- Social Negative Attention (Escape/Avoidance) Automatic Negative Reinforcement

7 Assessment vs. Analysis Gather information Form hypotheses Not systematic arrangement of environmental stimuli Natural settings Use information Test hypotheses Systematic manipulation of environmental stimuli Contrived/simulated settings

8 Conduct FBA 1. Operational Definition of the target behavior and measurement 2. Gather information (indirect and direct assessment) 3. Interpret information 4. Test hypothesis (Behavior Analysis)  Develop interventions

9 Operational Definition : define the target behavior…. Objective: Observable and measurable Clarity: unfamiliar observers can identify Including clear description of topography Completeness: clear boundaries, time frame Beginning and ending IRT/ break between behaviors

10 Data Collection Direct Measurement Permanent Products (written sample) Direct Observational Recording Event Recording Duration Recording Latency Recording Inter Response Time (IRT) Interval Recording (whole or partial) Momentary Time Sampling

11 Gather Information Indirect FBA Direct observation What to look for… Standardized test Medial history Maladaptive behaviors Setting, triggers, reinforcers Social history Previous FBA/interventions

12 Indirect FBA Collect useful information from individuals and/or significant others through… Interview Checklists Rating Scales Questionnaires Record review

13 Indirect FBA Advantage: Convenient Can collect useful information to form hypotheses Limitation: Accuracy Subjective Biased Not data based Low IOA

14 (Direct) Descriptive FBA ABC Continuous Recording ABC Narrative Recording Scatter Plots

15 (Direct) Descriptive FBA Direct observation in the natural environments Advantage: Collect useful information in the context Do not interrupt routines Limitation: Difficulties to pinpoint correlation May be misleading (c.f. intermittent reinforcement) Accidental correlation

16 Example Jon is 12 years old and diagnosis with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism. He attended both regular education classrooms and a special education classroom with one-on-one aide. He exhibits “chin hitting” across environments. ABC assessment was conducted in both environments and it was found that he is most likely to exhibit chin hitting during difficult tasks and in larger classrooms.

17 ABC Recording TimeAntecedentsBehaviorsConsequences 8: 15Given demandsChin hittingTasks removed 9:30Given demands in regular class Chin hittingTask removed Attention provided 9:35Teacher called on other students Chin hittingAttention provided 9:52Group instructionChin hitting Getting off seat Redirection from teacher 10:14Changes in schedule Given less familiar demands Chin hittingTask removed Attention provided

18 Interpret Information Draw hypotheses from information collected Write in ABC format HypothesesAntecedentBehaviorConsequence Escape from difficult tasks When Jon is given difficult tasks He hit his chin with his fist Tasks being removed Contingent Social Attention When teacher attention diverted from Jon He hit his chin with his fist Teacher attends to Jon

19 Behavior Analysis Experimental manipulation of antecedents and consequences to test hypotheses Advantage: Clear demonstration of relation among variables Limitation: Temporarily reinforce maladaptive behaviors Counterintuitive Not effective for less frequent behaviors Contrived settings Time consuming

20 Behavior Analysis Possible functions based on functional behavior assessment (c.f. contingent attention, contingent escape, alone, access to reinforcers) each condition will be presented systematically one at a time and collect data on target behaviors Create graphs Visually inspect graphs

21 Examples ConditionAntecedents (MO)Consequences ControlPreferred activities/ Attention are provided No demands Ignored or redirected Contingent AttentionAttention is withheld or diverted Attention is provided Contingent EscapeDemands are givenRemove demands/ tasks AloneNo demands, no materials, no teacher Ignored Motivating Operation (MO) and Reinforcement Contingencies for functional analysis

22 Examples

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26 Develop Interventions Alter Antecedents Change MO Change S D Alter Consequences S R+ S R- Teach or replace with functionally equivalent behaviors

27 FBA example Tommy is 15 years old male student who is diagnosed with autism. He is non-verbal and use signs and pictures to communicate his needs with occasional prompts. Tommy exhibits whining (high pitch and non-contextual vocalization) across settings and people, but more likely with his mother. Interview and ABC Continuous Recording Data suggested that he is more likely to exhibit whining when his mother is talking with others.

28 FBA Form Hypotheses HypothesesAntecedentsBehaviorsConsequences Escape from demands When Tommy is given demands He whines (high- pitch, non- contextual vocalization) Demands being removed Contingent attention when his mother is present He exhibits whining Attention being provided Contingent positive reinforcement (tangible) In the presence of reinforcers and mother He exhibits whining He receives tangible reinforcers

29 Test Hypotheses

30 Develop Interventions Contingent Tangible DRI/DRA (verbal/non-verbal) DRO NCR Contingent Attention DRI/DRA (verbal/non-verbal) Extinction NCR

31 Review #1 What is FBA? Functional Behavior Assessment

32 Review #2 Behavior Analysis is different from Functional Behavior Assessment because… Experimental manipulation Use information vs. gather information Test hypotheses Contrived settings/ interruption of routines

33 Review #3 Examples of indirect FBA are… Interview Checklists Rating Scales Questionnaires Record review

34 Review #4 What are some of limitations of Indirect FBA? Subjective Accuracy Biased Low IOA Not data based

35 Review #5 Examples of (Direct)Descriptive FBA are... ABC Continuous Recording ABC Narrative Recording Scatter plots

36 Review #6 What are advantages of (Direct) Descriptive FBA? Collect useful information in the context Do not interrupt routines

37 Review #7 Explain how to test hypotheses… Systematic manipulation of environmental stimuli (antecedents and consequences) Graphing Visual inspection

38 Review #8 Why is it necessary to conduct FBA? Avoid/Eliminate ineffective interventions To develop effective interventions Ensure the effectiveness of interventions

39 Review #9 What are functions of behaviors? Positive Reinforcement S R+ Social Attention Tangible Automatic Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement S R Social Negative Attention (Escape/Avoidance) Automatic Negative Reinforcement

40 Review #10 Explain Three Term Contingency… A(S D ) – B(R) – C(S R+ /S R- /S P+ /S P- ) Antecedent : a stimulus which occurs before a behavior Behavior/ Response : movement or action by an individual Consequences : a stimulus which is produced by a behavior

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