Presentation on theme: "Behavior IS Communication"— Presentation transcript:
1Behavior IS Communication (Please Listen)Mary Ann Powers, Ph.D., BCBA-D
2Common Behavior Problems for Children with Autism Non-Compliance – verbal or physical Aggression – hit, bite, kick Self - stim behaviors: verbal and physical Screaming, crying, loud sounds & noises Property Destruction Self-Injurious Tantrums – all of the above
3How to Understand and Change Problem Behaviors: ABC Analysis Antecedent Behavior Consequence
4Antecedents:When did the behavior happen: Time? Day? Who was there: People – peers & adults What happened right before: Activity? Who said & did what?
5In addition to Antecedents, other triggers to consider: External events such as:noise levelsseating arrangementswork loadInternal conditions:food deprivedsleep deprivednot feeling well
6Antecedent Frequently Associated with Problem Behaviors: Directions to start a task Directions to end a task Told to stop an inappropriate behavior Wanted an item out of reach Denied a requested item Seeing others getting what they want
7More Effective Antecedent Instructions Give instructions only when you have the person’s attention/focus Clear & concise language Do not beg or give multiple chances Give directions not questions
8Behavior Every picture tells a story – Paint the picture in words All should SEE the same behaviorDoes length of behavior count?2 seconds vs. 20 minutesDoes intensity of behavior count?hit no mark vs. bloodDoes frequency of behavior count?single hit vs. episode of 40+ hits
9ConsequenceWhat happened after the behavior?What did person do or say?What did others do or say?What did you do or say?Possible Functions of Behavior:To gain attentionTo escape a situationTo engage in stimulationTo get a tangible item or activityBehaviors can have multiple functions (depending on the situation)!!
10More functional examples of Communicative Intent: To request attention, a break, or help To request food, drink, object, activity To indicate pain or confusion To engage in sensory pleasure To protest a directive
11…. And the intent continues to communicate: access to reinforcement is low difficulties with change or variety difficulties with unstructured time difficulties in waiting choices are restricted
12ABCs Identified – Now What Future behavior is dependent upon: Reinforcement Reinforcement is ANYTHING that increases the future probability of a behavior - good or a bad.
13Reinforcement...can be about getting good things: attention, toys, food …can be about getting negative things: negative attention or reprimands …can be about getting rid of negative things: demands, work, bedtime …can be planned or unplanned …can be expensive, cheap or free
14Making Reinforcement More Effective Pair yourself with reinforcement delivery Use reinforcers that matter – that are motivating – to the person Deliver reinforcer following response completion, never before Size matters: difficult, new or excellent responses deserve better reinforcers
15Does the ABC Analysis work with adults and adolescents? Yes! Yes!! and Yes!!! It is all about function, function, and (oh yes) all about the function While the function categories are the same (i.e. attention, tangibles, escape, and sensory), the specific examples can be very different:
16Things to consider:To be safe, To be happy, To have friends, To be independent, To do work they like, To like where you live, To like to eat specific food, To like where/how you live, To do things in the community, To have choices and earning power, To have an adequate communication system to express needs and wants.