2Historical Mistakes In Behavior Management: Crisis management at the risk of proactive long term treatment.Behavioral Interventions:Narrow focus, identify behavior of concernApply consequences to reduce or eliminate behavior
3Beliefs About Behavior Behavior is related to and governed by its context.Behavior can be interpreted as functional (often communicative), purposeful and meaningful to the individual.Behavior is affected by internal events.Behavior is influenced by factors outside the immediate context, including relationships, activity patterns and lifestyle issues.Behavior changes as people mature and develop new competencies.Most behavior is learned. This is great, because we can teach new behaviors!
4“If a student doesn’t know how to read, we….” “If a student doesn’t know how to write a paragraph we….”“If a student doesn’t know their math facts we….”“If a student doesn’t know how to behave, we…..”
5The typical response is to punish. If we see behavior as a deficit area we can seize the opportunity to teach.
6Functional Behavior Assessment A process for identifying clear, predictive relationships between events in a person’s environment and occurrences of a target behavior that occurs frequently.
7FBA… Gather information about the behavior. Synthesize information and develop hypotheses regarding the variables that precipitate and maintain the behavior.Establish a foundation for development and implementation of comprehensive behavior support strategies.
8A Functional Behavior Is NOT: A form/ single instrumentA one time eventA record of consequencesDocumentation for suspension/ExpulsionSimply to define behaviors and identify techniques for elimination.
9In a nutshell, FBA:Attempts to discover the reasons (s) problem behavior occurs and keeps occurring.
10How Do You Identify The Target Behavior? The description needs to include:FrequencyDurationIntensityLocationWe need some measure of baseline. This is best determined by observations.
11How to describe antecedents Antecedents are events that happen before the behavior.There are two types of antecedents:Slow triggers (setting events)Fast triggers (immediate antecedents)
12Slow Triggers (Setting Events) May happen in or out of the classroom.Are conditions that increase the likelihood that behavior will occur.Examples:OversleepingNo breakfastForgotten medicationConflict with…History of negative relationshipsSkill deficits
13Antecedents (Fast Triggers) Events that immediately precede behavior.ActivitiesPlacesConsider where, when, with whom behavior does not happenPresence of particular people or combination of people
14Fast Triggers Examples: Assignment too difficult/easy Teasing/scarism Challenged by otherMay be consistent-when anyone asks him t sit downMay be unique to one situation-when Mr. Smith asks him to sit downTypes of variables: curricular/instructionalEnvironmentalSocial/emotional
15Consequence=response Actual response that follows behaviorPlanned consequences (response)*Distinguish actual response from intended purposeNaturally occurring consequences (responses)*Adults, peers, tasks/activity status/ stimulation
16What is the Consequence of the Behavior? What is the pay-off?What does the student get?What does the student avoid?What might be the student be trying to communicate?
17Hypotheses Development “When this occurs (describe context) then the student does (describe the behavior) to access or avoid (describe the function)”
18Linking hypothesis to Behavior Intervention Plan Prevent problem behaviors from occurring by manipulating setting vents/antecedents.Increase desired behaviors by teaching replacement skills which achieve the same function.Planning our responses to problem behavior.
19Prevention Strategies: Increase attention before problem behaviorProvide additional support or structureIncrease supervisionRemind and prompt specific behaviorsRemove antecedentsProvide limited choicesEtc….
20Replacement SkillsTeach socially acceptable alternatives that achieve the same function as the target behaviorTeach new skills that increase competence of:Problem solvingConflict resolutionResponding to a confrontationIgnoringTolerance for delay
21Consequences to Reinforce Replacement or New Skills Maximize reinforcement for alternative or new skill and all attempts at appropriate request for attention.Use shaping strategies to reinforce successive approximations.Ensure that the planned responses are immediate.Decide if tangible
22Reduction Oriented Consequences In non-crisis mode, prompt the student to use alternative skill.Ignore problem behavior and redirect to task at hand.Always respond with neutral affectDefer to routines, schedules, promptsUse logical consequences that are plannedSay what you mean and mean what you say