Presentation on theme: "Autism Observation Instrument General Education Classrooms"— Presentation transcript:
1 Autism Observation Instrument General Education Classrooms forGeneral Education ClassroomsDr. Karen BerkmanClick now to advance to the next slideHello, this is Dr. Karen Berkman . This tutorial is an accompaniment for the Autism Observation InstrumentFor General Education Classrooms.This instrument and tutorial was developed as a collaborative statewide project across all of the Florida Centers for Autism and Related Disabilities.
2 Click now to advance to the next slide Viewing This TutorialObservation Instrument FormatClassroom Environment and OperationCurriculum and InstructionOpportunities for Typical ExperiencesProgram Model and PoliciesThere are two ways to view this tutorial.If you would like to view it from beginning to end, simply allow the tutorial to advance automatically. However, if you are interested only in particular content areas, click on the links provided here to be taken directly to the related content slides.At any point during this tutorial, you can return to this slide by simply clicking this symbol when it appears.At the beginning of this tutorial, you will find several slides that introduce the viewer to the purpose, uses, format and ratings of this observation tool. Anyone who is not familiar with these aspects of the instrument should view the introductory slides by simply allowing the tutorial to progress.If you have previously watched the accompanying tutorial for the observation instrument designed for self contained autism classrooms, you may not wish to review this information again. In this case, simply click this button, and you will be taken to the point in the tutorial that begins the review of the specific instrument indicators.To access additional information about the topic of the particular slide in this tutorial, you will be directed to a particular portion of the accompanying tutorial for the observation instrument designed for self contained autism classrooms. If you aren’t interested in learning more about the topic, just continue on with the presentation.Click now to advance to the next slide
3 CARD Classroom Observation Instrument Click now to advance to the next slidebe familiar with all aspects of quality educational programs for students with autismsubjective structure for guiding classroom observationsbe able to explain their observationsmake more than one observationa starting point for discussionsthe CARD Autism Observation Instrument for General Education Classrooms is intended as a planning tool for professional development or program support.Observers should:Make more than one observation, scheduled at different points during the school day.Be familiar with all aspects of quality educational program for students with autism and be able to recognize all indicators or their absence.Recognize that this tool is a subjective structure for guiding classroom observations, not a measurement of teacher performanceUse this tool as a starting point for discussions with classroom staff about program development and support needsBe able to explain their observations and the completed tool with classroom teachers and staff as a starting point for planning.Now let’s take a look at the instrument itself,
4 Observation Instrument: Heading At the top, you’ll find a Heading section, for recording the name of the school site name, the dates the observations were conducted and the name of the observer.Click now to advance to the next slide
5 Observation Instrument: Ratings Directly beneath the heading, you’ll see rankings used to indicate the presence of each program indicator.Indicators should be rated as follows:A 2 reflects the indicator was readily apparent and used or demonstrated actively and consistently throughout the observationA rating of 1 reflects the indicator was present, but may not have been used or demonstrated consistently, or was only partially achieved.A 0 reflects the indicator was not present or observed, despite it’s appropriateness for the observation context.An NA rating is used if the observation context did not provide an adequate opportunity to observe the indicator.Click now to advance to the next slide
6 Observation Instrument: Format Click now to advance to the next slide Classroom environment and operationOpportunities for typical experiencesThe observation instrument is organized around broad categories, including:Classroom environment and operationCurriculum and instructionOpportunities for typical experiencesProgram model and policiesWithin each category, you will also find individual program quality indicatorsProgram model and policiesCurriculum and instructionClick now to advance to the next slide
7 Observation instrument: Notations Click now to advance to the next slideNext to each program quality indicator, you will find 2 separate columns for your notations. The center column is for you to note your rating of that indicator based on the time period in which the observation was conducted.On the right side of each indicator, you will also find a column for making notes or comments regarding your observation of that indicator.
8 Classroom Environment and Operation Click now to advance to the next slideStudents with autism spectrum disorders often rely on what they can see within their learning environment and information or routines they have previously learned. Therefore, providing a well organized physical environment with clear established expectations and routines is a foundational component of quality educational program for themIndicators of this category are as follows:
9 A daily class schedule is posted. Reviewed each morningReferred to throughout the dayPersonal schedules provided for individual students as neededA daily schedule of activities is posted in the classroom and a system for communicating the activity schedule to students is evident (present?). This schedule should be reviewed as a part of the opening routine at the start of the day, and referred to as needed throughout the day, especially at times when the routine varies. Individual schedules are (present) for those students who may require a personal visual support.Click now to advance to the next slide
10 The daily schedule is followed as outlined. Changes in routine are indicatedActivity sequence and time frames are accurateThe daily schedule is followed as outlined. It’s not uncommon for students with autism spectrum disorders to have difficulty reacting to sudden or unanticipated changes in routine. That’s why it’s important for changes in routine to be indicated on the daily schedule to the greatest extent possible. It’s also just as important that daily activities flow in the sequence and time frames that the schedule indicates.Click now to advance to the next slide
11 Every student is engaged. Instructional activities are…Relevant to students’ educational goalsInteresting and meaningful to the studentValued by other peopleHighly structuredVaried in length of time and level of motor activityClick now to advance to the next slideEvery student is engaged in active learning activities, with minimal non-engagement (time? Or “down time”?) between activities.Sound educational programming consistently provides learning activities that are educationally relevant, meaningful to the student and valued by other people. Instructional activities should consistently provide high levels of structure and routine and should be varied in the length of time and level of motor activity involved.
12 Transitions are smooth. Occur infrequentlyConducted smoothly and efficientlySupported by environmental arrangement and schedulingClick now to advance to the next slideTransitions between activities are handled smoothly and efficiently.Large group transitions may be difficult for students with ASD, so they should happen infrequently, and be conducted in a smooth and efficient manner when they do. Transitions should be supported by environmental arrangements in order to define space and allow each student to know where he/she should be. This example shows pictures of students’ feet which indicate where they should stand to line up.
13 Classroom Rules are Clearly Stated. Clearly postedStated in positive and succinct termsDefine specific, observable student behaviorsReferred to regularlyRe-direction when infractions occurConsequences are clearly and consistently implementedClick now to advance to the next slideClassroom rules are clearly posted in the classroom. worded positively and succinctly, define specific, observable students behaviors, and Teachers refer to them regularly as prompts for appropriate behavior. Students are re-directed to them when infractions occur. Consequences for both following and breaking class rules are clearly and consistently implemented.
14 Choice making is promoted. Opportunities to make choicesAcquire or expand choice making skillsClick now to advance to the next slideStudents with autism spectrum disorders are given opportunities to make choices and further develop choice making skills.
15 Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP) are Implemented. Click now to advance to the next slideTeacher implements student’s Behavior Intervention Plan , or BIP, as indicated.Students displaying behavioral difficulties have an individualized behavior plan or have been referred for an FBAIf you are interested in learning more about more about the teacher’s role in the development and implementation of a comprehensive behavior support plan, please refer to slide 43 of the accompanying tutorial designed for observations in self contained autism classrooms,
16 Classroom arrangements promote student learning. Well organized physical environmentClear visual boundariesIndividualized visual supportsClick now to advance to the next slideInstructional areas of the classroom are clearly defined for students and instructional materials are readily accessible to each student/Students with autism spectrum disorders often rely on what they can see within their learning environment for cues and other instructional information(but the reality is they are poor at using these cues to know what to do…they are attending to irrelevant parts of the environment, and therefore mis-reading what to do next…that is why we use visuals for more direct instruction and information) . Therefore, providing a well organized physical environment with clear visual boundaries, readily available instructions(al) materials and individualized visual supports is a foundational component of quality educational program for students with autism spectrum disorders.
17 Classroom assistants facilitate student learning. Promote student independenceFacilitate interaction with peersCan recognize incidental opportunities for instructionAre knowledgeable of student’s learning needs and instructional goalsClassroom assistants (when present) are actively involved with students in a manner that promotes their(the student’s) independence, learning and social interaction with peers.Opportunities for instruction often occur coincidentally(spontaneously-teachable moments) in all school activities across the day, both in and out of the classroom. This indicator requires the observer to rate how well classroom staff recognize and use these opportunities to teach or reinforce relevant targeted skills.Click now to advance to the next slide
18 Student performance data is collected regularly. Click now to advance to the next slideData is:Collected during instructional activitiesReviewed at team planning meetingsData on student performance is collected an reviewed weekly during collaborative planning time that involves members of the student’s educational team. If you are interested in learning more about gathering and analyzing data as a measure of student performance, , please refer to slide 37 of the accompanying tutorial designed for observations in self contained autism classrooms.
19 Curriculum and Instruction Click now to advance to the next slideStudents with autism spectrum disorders often have educational priorities that may not be specifically addressed within the general academic curricula. They may also at times need instructional supports, or modifications tailored to accommodate their individual learning styles. This section of the observation checklist addresses the indicators of quality educational programming in this area.
20 Instruction is individualized. Instructional goals, strategies, and materials are individualized for each studentReinforcers are a natural response to the targeted skillsPlanned opportunities for generalization of skillsInstructional strategies are tailored for individual students and their specific goals.Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders learn in their own way and have individual strengths and weaknesses. Effective teachers will demonstrate an ability to provide instruction that is individualized to the needs of each student. Reinforcers used reflect a natural response to the targeted skill. Additionally, instruction should include planned opportunities to practice skills in a number of different settings or circumstances.Click now to advance to the next slide
21 Visual supports are utilized. Correct level of symbolic representationEnhance predictabilityFacilitate transitionsConvey expectationsClick now to advance to the next slideVisual and manipulative supports are used to support learning as needed.Visual supports are at the correct level of symbolic functioning (representation) for individual students, and are used to enhance predictability , facilitate transitions, and convey expectations . If you are interested in learning more about visual supports , please refer to slide 43 of the accompanying tutorial designed for observations in self contained autism classrooms.
22 Social skills are taught. Instructional priorityTargeted throughout the school dayFrequent and varied opportunities to interact with non-disabled peersSocial interactions are planned and supportedSupport for peersDirect instruction is used to teach social skills as needed.Social skills and abilities are another fundamental deficit area for students with autism spectrum disorders. Therefore, social competence are(is) also an instructional priority to be targeted throughout the entire school day. Because of this, a typical school day should offer frequent and varied opportunities to interact with non-disabled peers. Social skills instruction should be planned and supported by staff, along with information and guidance for peers.Click now to advance to the next slide
23 Instructional opportunities are embedded into activities. Generalization of skillsEmbedded skills instructionSkill instruction in social and communicative behaviors is embedded into naturally occurring activates and routines.Learning and generalization of skills is enhanced when they are taught within the naturally occurring activities and routines of the school day. Opportunities to teach many important life skills, such as choice making, communication and social interaction should be embedded into routinely scheduled learning activities. (this is redundant…can you give an example instead?)Click now to advance to the next slide
24 Teacher provides behavioral modeling and reinforcement. The teacher provides….a strong, positive model for appropriate behavior and interactionsReinforcement for the same behaviors when demonstrated by studentsRegardless of their age, students will always take cues from their teachers regarding their own behavior and their interactions with other peers and adults. Teachers must therefore provide a strong, positive model for appropriate behavior and interactions, and must also reinforce the same behaviors with their students.Click now to advance to the next slide
25 Communications Supports and Devices Use of communications supports is encouraged in all situationsStudents must understand the purpose of the device and be motivated to use itstudents have access to their communication systems at all timesAugmentative or alternative communication supports are available to the student at all times and designed individually according to student needs and learner characteristics.XXX Some students with autism spectrum disorders can communicate more effectively and with less effort(I am not sure I agree with less effort) if they can rely on an augmentative communications support or device. Without the, these students in effect do not have a voice. But simply having the device available is not sufficient for students with this level of need – they must also be taught it’s purpose and motivated to use it. Therefore, communication devices and supports must be easily accessible to students at all times, and they should be encouraged to rely on them to express their needs and desires(and be reinforced for using them by having their wishes respected)To learn more strategies for promoting(encouraging) the use of communication devices and supports, refer to slide 41 of the accompanying tutorial designed for observations in self contained autism classrooms.Click now to advance to the next slide
26 Staff respond to challenging behavior in an appropriate manner. No escalation or reinforcement of behaviorUtilize proactive supportsRedirect student attentionDiffuse difficult situationsClick now to advance to the next slideStaff respond to challenging behavior in an appropriate manner that neither escalates nor reinforces its occurrence. Instead, they consistently utilize the proactive supports indicated on the student’s individualized behavior support plan as a means of preventing or minimizing problems. They also smoothly and efficiently redirect student attention and diffuse difficult situations when they do occur.
27 Teacher utilizes systematic instruction. Staff Members:deliver instructional cues clearlyprompt students as neededreinforce correct responsescorrect errors when neededClick now to advance to the next slideDuring a lesson, staff members should consistently:ldeliver clear and concise instructional cuesprompt students as neededreinforce correct responsescorrect errors when needed
28 Instruction is modified only as needed. Instruction is individualized to accommodate unique learning needs of studentInstructional integrity of learning activity is maintainedClick now to advance to the next slideInstruction, consequences and corrections are closely related to show procedures used with typical students(?)Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders learn in their own way and have individual strengths and weaknesses. Effective teachers will demonstrate an ability to provide instruction that is individualized to the needs of each student, yet still fit within the natural context of the general curriculum and its learning activities.
29 Staff interactions with students are positive. Comments directed toward studentsfollow a ratio of7:1 instructive or positive commentsMost of the comments directed to students by classroom staff should be positive and instructive. If a corrective comment is made, efforts should then be made to add more positive comments.to corrective or negative comments.Click now to advance to the next slide
30 Written lesson plans are available. Stated clearlyContent of lessonTargeted instruction outcomesConsistent with student IEP objectivesWritten lesson plans are available which clearly state the content and instructional outcomes (consistent with the student's IEP objectives) of the learning activity.Click now to advance to the next slide
31 Lesson plans specify instructional strategies. Content delivery methodsPrompting and cuing strategiesLevel and delivery method for teacher assistanceStudent performance feedback methodsFollow up assignments or independent practiceClick now to advance to the next slideLesson plans specify instructional strategies, including:Content delivery methodsPrompting and cuing strategiesLevel and delivery method for teacher assistanceStudent performance feedback methodsFollow up assignments or independent practice
32 Opportunities for Typical Experiences Click now to advance to the next slide
33 All students are equal participants. Students participate in classroom activities through…Physical integrationInstructional accommodations and modificationsSocial and peer supportPerceived as a full class memberClick now to advance to the next slideStudents with Autism spectrum disorders are integrated into classroom large group instructional activities through;Physical proximity and involvement in group activitiesAcademic accommodations or modifications as needed.Social interventions and peer support Teachers and other students in the classroom perceive the student ans a full class member
34 All students utilize school enrichment facilities. School facilitiesEnrichment content area classesStudents with ASD use school enrichment areas including the library, gymnasium or playground and attend enrichment content area classes, such as art, music and PE with general education peers.Click now to advance to the next slide
35 Students share meals together. Same scheduleShared spacesClick now to advance to the next slideStudents with Autism Spectrum Disorders eat lunch at the same time and at the same cafeteria tables with general education peers.
36 Friendships are promoted. Peer acceptanceExposure to learning opportunitiesClick now to advance to the next slideFriendships between students with and without disabilities are promoted. General education peers understand and accept the communication and social differences they may notice in students with autism spectrum disorders. Students with autism spectrum disorders are continuously exposed to new opportunities to make friends and learn social skills with support as needed. All students interact with each in positive ways across school settings and activities.
37 Program Model and Policies Click now to advance to the next slide Students with autism spectrum disorders often have educational priorities that may not be specifically addressed within the general academic curricula. They may also at times need instructional supports, or modifications tailored to accommodate their individual learning styles. This section of the observation checklist addresses the indicators of quality educational programming in this area.
38 Therapies are integrated into classroom activities. Classroom activities are the therapeutic settingTherapists provide clinical expertiseTherapy goals are addressed continuouslySpeech and occupational or physical therapy are integrated into classroom activities, rather than as a pull out direct service. Staff perceive the therapist’s role as a resource for clinical expertise so that therapy goals can be addressed continuously in naturally occurring activities and situations throughout the school day.Click now to advance to the next slide
39 Staff interact in a professional manner. Communication between staff…Use person-first languageIs respectful of students and their familiesIs limited in content to classroom issues and instructionSpecial education classrooms are not identified by a disability category, label or other terms that may affect a student's self-esteem.Click now to advance to the next slide
40 All classrooms are identified in a similar manner. Click now to advance to the next slideSpecial education classrooms are not identified by a disability category, label or other terms that may affect a student's self-esteem.
41 Student confidentiality is maintained. Classroom Staff…Do not exchange or share verbal or written information about the student with unauthorized individuals without direct parental consentAre mindful of where and with whom they share personal perceptions of students and classroom eventsClick now to advance to the next slideAll staff maintain the confidentiality of students and families. Communication regarding the student should be:respectful of the students and their families,preserve their confidentiality andbe limited to classroom issues and instruction.
42 Using Gathered Information Click now to advance to the next slide examples of appropriate educational practicepriorities for further programmatic developmentpriorities for further staff developmentNow that you’ve completed the classroom observation, information gathered with the instrument can be used to identify aspects of the classroom as:Strong examples of appropriate educational practice for students with autism spectrum disorders. These areas of programmatic strength can then be observed by other teachers for their own professional or programmatic development.Priorities for further programmatic developmentPriorities for further staff developmentClick now to advance to the next slide
43 University Of South Florida Center for Autism & Related Disabilities Questions?ContactUniversity Of South FloridaCenter for Autism & Related DisabilitiesIf you have questions after watching this tutorial, please feel free to contact CARD-USF for further assistance.(813)Click arrow to return to the beginning of this tutorialPress “Escape” to exit this tutorial
44 Suggested Strategiesconsistently uses visual supports for students’ schedules, daily class schedules, and special areasutilizes sign language videos that teach simple signsprovides picture schedule to prepare students for transition or changegives opportunities on a daily basis to generalize the use of visual supportsTo encourage use of augmentative communication, the teacher:provides picture schedule prior to event to prepare student for transition/changeutilizes sign language videos that teach simple signsconsistently uses visual supports for students’ schedules, daily class schedules, and special areas (P.E., Music, etc.)gives opportunities on a daily basis to generalize the use of signs