Presentation on theme: "AT/AAC Summer Session 4. Upcoming Assignments Annotated Bibliographies due today Please send electronically so they can be posted to share! Date Change…July."— Presentation transcript:
Upcoming Assignments Annotated Bibliographies due today Please send electronically so they can be posted to share! Date Change…July 16 th - Ecological Inventories Assignment Remember this is with a group July 16 th … Critique of Research Article is due This is an individual assignment July 18 th … Technology Selection/Design Assignment is due
5 Opportunity Barriers to Communication Beukelman & Mirenda (1992) 1.Policy barriers- Policies that segregate AAC users or limit the use of communication devices purchased with school funding to classroom use 2.Practice barriers- Precedents, procedures, and common practice within a school that are not actual policies, but limit full participation of AAC users 3.Attitude barriers- individual opinions & beliefs that affect the AAC user’s full participation 4.Knowledge barriers- lack of knowledge about AAC interventions & use options 5.Skill barriers- limits of the technical & communication knowledge of those responsible for the AAC assessment & intervention plan
Steps in Conducting a Systematic Preference Assessment 1.Define the purpose of the assessment. 2.Select the range of sampling options 3.Determine the forms of the sampling options 4.Define the student’s responses for preference and non- preference of options 5.Outline presentation procedures 6.Determine sampling schedule & location 7.Observe & record responses to options 8.Summarize & make recommendations based on assessment.
Ecological Inventory of Communication Skills Steps in Activity Natural Cues Comm. Skills Needed Student Performance Discrepancy Analysis Interv. Plan Receptive or Expressive + or -Why student isn’t doing the step sug gest ions
Antecedent Strategies -Time Delay -Prompting -Pre-correction -Modeling Instructional Design -Range of Responses -Range of Examples -Positive Examples -Negative Examples -Minimally Different -Maximally Different Consequence Strategies -Differential Reinforcement -Shaping -Error Correction
Ecological Inventories Assignment Questions??? Include a preference assessment (forms provided on wiki or on disk from book) Include an ecological inventory for each of the activities given within the case example (if you chose to use your own case example please use the same activities from the case examples)
Preference Assessments Why are preference assessments so important? Want to be seen as the “giver of good things” Natural consequences may not be reinforcing to the learner.
Systematic Preference Assessments Can be use for a number of reasons, but mostly used to identify potential reinforcers Good idea is to start with: An interview of significant others to find out about a variety of items and activities a learner might like
Direct Observation is most reliable method for assessing preferences From list, directly manipulate potentially preferred items and observe to identify which items are actually preferred. Free Access or Choice of reinforcing items
Free Access Steps (Ortiz & Carr, 2000) Identify several potentially preferred items (checklist or interview of others) Position items so that the learner has access to all items Spread around the room in the learner’s reach/view Observe the learner on several occassions Document the first item (& successive items) the learner approaches and note the total duration of time the learner engages with each item.
In-Class Activity Outline a “free access” preference assessment for the case study for your ecological inventory
Forced Choice Steps (Piazza, Fisher, Hagopian, Bowman, & Toole, 1996) Identify several potentially preferred items Present items in pairs. Randomize the presentation of items in pairs and order of pairs (to prevent the same item from being presented too many times in a row) Randomize the position of the items Observe the item in each pair the learner selects.
Experimental methodology in which (ANTECEDENTS) and potential reinforcers (CONSEQUENCES) of a problem behavior are carefully arranged in a controlled manner to isolate the effects of potential sources of reinforcement that are often confounded through other observational methods (Iwata, Kahng, Wallace, & Lindberg, 2000; Mace, Lalli, & Lalli, 1991). Can lead to causal rather than correlational outcome data with respect to the relationships between environmental events and behavior (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
Functional Analysis (FA) Purpose of Functional Analysis: Experimentally determine the function of problem behavior Uses at least 3 conditions: Control (baseline), Attention (provided when problem behaviors occur), Escape (removal of aversive when p.b. occur) Should be conducted by individual trained in FA and how to deal with extreme problem behaviors
Design of Functional Analysis Conditions Individualized according to the functional hypotheses developed by the school professionals. The functional analyses for all students consist of at least three conditions: control, attention, and escape. Control Condition: baseline condition in which student has consistently exhibited little or no problem behavior. Reinforcement should be freely available and no demands placed on student Attention Condition: will involve the contingent provision of attention following occurrence of the problem behavior. Escape Condition: will examine the function of student behavior through the contingent removal of aversive tasks (e.g., difficult, long, or physically taxing tasks)
Safeguards to maintain experimental control & reduce error/ bias 1. Functional analyses may be conducted in a room separate from the classroom environment to minimize distractions (the classroom environment is more natural, but less controllable). 2. Across days the experimental conditions are presented in random order to reduce the risk of order effects.
Direct Observations During Functional Analysis Trained data collectors will collect observation data on the occurrence or non-occurrence of target behavior using a partial- interval recording system.
Functional Analysis Condition Procedures Each functional analysis condition will consist of 10 trials and last a maximum of 5 minutes. Between conditions, the student is offered a 1-minute break. Before starting a new condition, the student will be provided with a verbal description of the procedures that will be used in that condition. Following occurrences of problem behavior during each condition, the researcher will systematically follow through with the prescribed response (i.e. removal of task, providing attention, etc.).
The student is a Kindergarten student in a general education classroom with 17 students. His strengths are : Knows initial sounds & likes reading Routine: Reading (9:00) OR Math (10:00-10:30) Setting EventAntecedentBehaviorOutcome/Consequence Unknown During large or small group time when student is sitting with other students or an adult. Makes loud noises, touches others, plays with items, looks around (off-task) Peers or adults will respond to his behavior and give him attention Function: Access attention from the adult (and peers to ultimately get the attention of the adult)
Activities for Control Condition (Preferred activities) Activities for Attention Condition (Easy activities >90% accuracy) Activities for Escape Condition (Less preferred/difficult activities <60% accurate) 1.Building with Blocks 2.Working with unifix cubes 3.Drawing 1.Phonics center activities 2.Worksheets on phonics and reading 1.Reading CVC words from a list 2.Writing/handwritin g activities 3.Math worksheets
Baseline condition in which student has consistently exhibited little or no problem behavior. Procedure: 1. Introduction: “I’ll help you while you do __________ task” 2. Student presented with the _____________task. 3. The researcher provides 1:1 attention with ongoing prompts every 3-5 seconds. 4. Any occurrences of the problem behavior will be ignored and the student will continue to receive attention every 3-5 seconds. Setting EventAntecedentConsequence Give attention for 1 minute Preferred activity (from list in table above) Ignore problem behavior
Involves the contingent provision of attention following occurrence of the problem behavior 1. Introduction: “I want you to do this activity.” 2. Researcher will present the activity and then move 10 ft away from student 3. If student engages in target behavior, the researcher will approach the student and provide the student with 5 seconds of adult attention 4. Following the 5-second interval the student will be directed to return to the activity, the researcher will walk away, and the next trial will begin. Setting EventAntecedentConsequence 1 minute break—walk around…limited attention on break Easy worksheet (from table above) no attention—adult 10 feet away Contingent attention. If exhibits target behavior(s) (5 seconds of adult attention)
Examine the function of student behavior through the contingent removal of aversive tasks 1. Introduction: “I want you to work on this activity, if I think you are having trouble, we’ll take a 10-second break. During that break you need to sit quietly and count to 10 seconds. 2. The researcher will provide 1:1 attention with ongoing prompts related to completion of the assignment every 3-5 seconds throughout the condition. 3. Any time the student engages in the target behavior, the researcher will say, “Let’s have a 10 second break” and remove the worksheet for 10 seconds without providing the student any further attention. 4. The next trial will start following the 10-second break after the student is directed to get back to work. Setting EventAntecedentConsequence Desired activity on breakDifficult activity (less than 60% accurate from table above) with 1:1 attention Remove task for 10 seconds with no attention
What would you use for the conditions to test this hypothesis? AntecedentBehaviorConsequence Small group writing tasks (writing paragraphs) Makes faces and talks to other students Get Peer Attention Control Condition? Attention Condition? Escape Condition? Ignore Work Alone on easy task Work w/ Peers on difficult task Provide him w/ attention from Peers Remove the task
What would you use for the conditions to test this hypothesis? AntecedentBehaviorConsequence Double digit addition problems Puts head down, throws pencil down Avoid Math Task Control Condition? Attention Condition? Escape Condition? Ignore Work Alone on easy task Work w/ teacher on double digit problems Provide him w/ attention Remove the task
FBA: Summary of Behavior Maintaining Consequence & Function Problem Behavior Antecedent FUNCTION FUNCTION is where student behavior intersects with the environment Function = Learning Student learns…. When (A), if I (B), then (C)… Function = how I benefit so I keep doing B Targeted Routine
General Case Design of Instruction 1.Define the Instructional Universe 2.Define the range of relevant stimulus and response variation 3.Select examples for teaching and probe testing 4.Sequence the teaching examples 5.Teach sequence 6.Test using the non-trained probe examples
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