Presentation on theme: "Using Data to Determine Intervention: Removing the Guesswork."— Presentation transcript:
Using Data to Determine Intervention: Removing the Guesswork
Ways to Strengthen Measurement of Behavior Clearly define behavior(s) and regularly review definition(s). Assure that observers and interviewers have adequate training and experience. Select appropriate assessment strategies for behavior(s) and context(s).
Ways to Strengthen Measurement of Behavior (continued) Collect information across time and settings using multiple strategies and persons. Conduct routine checks of the accuracy of observer scoring/recording procedures.
Data Triangulation to Assess Behavior Direct observation Setting events checklist Student interviews Informant surveys Review of incident reports Scatterplot
Problem Pathway Analysis Temporal and sequential record of: Setting events; Precipitating events; Target behavior; and, Maintaining consequences.
Issues to Consider in Devising a Behavior Intervention Plan 1. Is it possible to rearrange social/ physical environment to prevent student from engaging in behavior that results in negative outcomes? 2. Is desired behavior age appropriate? 3. Does replacement/desired behavior satisfy the same function (or need) as problem behavior and/or result in the same outcome?
Issues to Consider in Devising a Behavior Intervention Plan 4. Is the desired behavior in the student’s repertoire - even at low rates of occurrence? 5. Is the desired behavior incompatible with the problem behavior? 6. Is it more reinforcing for the student to engage in the desired behavior than the problem behavior?
Issues to Consider in Devising a Behavior Intervention Plan 7. What is the likelihood that the desired behavior will be elicited in regular settings? 8. What is the likelihood that the desired behavior will be reinforced in regular settings?
Behavioral Intervention Options Modify aspects of setting events (e.g., physical arrangements of the classroom, general management strategies); Teach the student more acceptable behavior that serves the same function as the inappropriate behavior (e.g., teacher attention for student corrects, peer attention through tutorial instruction);
Behavioral Intervention Options (continued) Manipulate the antecedents precipitating (e.g., teacher directions) and/or consequences maintaining the problem behavior (e.g., precise praise); Implement changes in classroom curriculum and/or instructional strategies (e.g., offer group-individualized instruction) and/or
Behavioral Intervention Options (continued) Introduce reinforcement-oriented interventions (e.g., vary the amount, delivery, or nature of student reinforcement).
Interventions That Influence Antecedents of Problem Behavior Alter schedule of activities; Adapt curriculum or task-specific aspects of instruction; Vary size of instructional groupings; Provide special directions regarding instruction; Introduce pre-corrective strategies before problems occur; and, Teach students rules.
Factors Influencing Acceptability of Intervention Consistent with teacher beliefs and values; Does not require too much effort or time; Does not exceed the skill level of the teacher (with support); Is unobtrusive; and, Holds promise of effectiveness.
Escape-Motivated Behavior Description: Student need to escape from an aversive situation. Examples: difficult, irrelevant lengthy or ambiguous assignment; undesirable group placement; negative peer or adult interaction. Intervention Options: instruction in signal responses
Signal for Escape-Motivated Behaviors Identify the situations. Determine the critical time period. Choose a safety signal. Deliver the safety signal. Release the student from the activity. Gradually increase the time spent on task.
Attention-Seeking Behavior Description: Unmet student need for attention, coupled with perception that attention is unlikely to occur. Examples: call outs, swearing, yelling at classmate or teacher; tantrum or noncompliance with adult request. Intervention Options: non-contingent attention
Attention-Seeking Behavior (continued) contingent attention following appropriate behavior withdrawal of attention following misbehavior instruction in appropriate attention- seeking strategies Ineffective Strategies verbal reprimands or student put downs
Signal for Attention-Seeking Behavior Identify the situations. Determine the critical period. Choose a safety signal. Deliver the safety signal. Allow access to the desired object/ activity/attention. Gradually increase the time spent waiting.
Punishment as an Intervention Least effective way to change a behavior Should only be considered as a last resort everything else has been tried and failed behavior is so noxious there is no social interaction the behavior is likely to result in injury
Limitations of Punishment Does not eliminate behavior Cause emotional reactions Does not teach appropriate behaviors May not overcome reinforcers Provides aggressive role models May result in aggressive reactions May spill over to other students
Strategies to Support Positive Behavior Changes Social/environmental re-engineering; Cognitive mediation and self-management; Periodic “booster” training; Advocacy training; and, Accept “just noticeable differences”.
Components of Comprehensive a Intervention Plan Proactive (training/support) strategies Reactive (control/deterrent) strategies Longitudinal (time span) strategies Ecological (life setting) strategies Emergency (crisis) strategies