Functional Behavior Assessment 2011 SEL Academy Professional Development
Goals By the end of the session the participants will be able to –Define in observable terms problem behaviors –Identify the purpose of function of problematic behaviors –Create a comprehensive FBA –Create PBSP based on Scenario
Discussion How many of you have conducted a Functional Behavior Assessment? What was your process? –How successful has this process been for you, your teachers and your students? –What are the barriers to conducting a comprehensive FBA?
FBA: Team process for behavior problem-solving Consists of information-gathering procedures resulting in a working hypothesis related to the function(s) of behaviors. Process also identifies environmental antecedents and consequences that maintain the behaviors Information gathered used to develop a behavior intervention plan (BIP)
FBA Disciplinary Change in Placement –More than 10 school days consecutively –More than 15 school days cumulatively in a school year Pattern of disciplinary infractions Exclusion from school for student with Mental Retardation 504 Service (behavior) CSAP
FBA: Develop specific, clear description of the behavior of concern correspondIdentify antecedents and consequences that correspond to behavioral episodes Develop summary statements that identify the perceived function(s) of the behavior(s) of concern Forms the basis for the PBSP
Types of Problem Behavior Problem behavior typically falls into one or more of these general categories: –(a) behavior that produces attention and other desired events (e.g., access to toys, desired activities), –(b) behavior that allows the person to avoid or escape demands or other undesired events/activities, and –(c) behavior that occurs because of its sensory consequences (relieves pain, feels good, etc.).
Problem Behaviors Problem behavior typically falls into one or more of these general categories: –(d) access to preferred item –(e) power or control
Problem Behaviors Must be Observable & Measurable –Easily observed –Countable –Have a beginning and end
What Do You Think? Jared talks out at least two times per class. He smiles, and other students snicker, when his teachers remind him to raise his hand. Since the beginning of the year, the problem seems worse. Do the reminders reinforce or punish him? How do you know? What might be the function of this behavior?
What Do You Think? Colleen has an argument with someone in the cafeteria at least 3 times a week. The consequence is to stay in at recess and read or work on the computer with the teacher. Is the consequence serving as a reward or a punisher? What might the function of Colleen’s behavior be?
Collection of Data Indirect –Use of student records, interviews, questionnaires, or checklists to identify how others perceive the situation and possible motivations for the problem behavior. Direct –May employ observations, record the situational factors surrounding the problem behavior.
Indirect- Student Records Review the student’s records. –In a systematic fashion, identify any previous relevant background data from existing documents that relate to the problem behavior.
Indirect- Interviews When conducting an interview, consider asking the following questions:... –WHO is present when the problem occurs?... –WHAT is happening just before the problem occurs, and what happens immediately after the problem behavior?... –WHEN does the problem behavior occur?... –WHERE does the problem behavior take place?
–And finally, are there times or places when the problem behavior does NOT occur?
Indirect- Influencing Factors Watch for factors that can influence a student’s behavior, such as: –Physiological - internal workings of living things, including such functions as metabolism, respiration –Environmental - student’s surroundings –Curricular and instructional - academic subjects –Setting events or incidents that happen some- time before the problem situation.
Direct Method Use direct assessment to observe and record the problem events as they happen. Direct assessments may include frequency counts, interval recording systems, and antecedent-behavior-consequence or A-B-C charts.
Beyond Data Collection DEFINE EVENTS AND SITUATIONS THAT PREDICT OCCURRENCES OF THE BEHAVIOR(S) 1.Time of Day: When are the behaviors most and least likely to happen? 2. Settings: Where are the behaviors most and least likely to happen? 3. Social Control: With whom are the behaviors most and least likely to happen?
Beyond Data Collection 4. Activity: What activities are most and least likely to produce the behaviors? 5. Are there particular situations, events, etc. that are not listed above that “set off” the behaviors that cause concern (particular demands, interruptions, transitions, delays, being ignored, etc.)? 6. What one thing could you do that would most likely make the problem behavior occur?
Beyond Data Collection 7. What one thing could you do to make sure the problem behavior did not occur?
Beyond Data Collection IDENTIFY THE “FUNCTION” OF THE UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOR(S) 1.Think of each of the behaviors listed, and define the function(s) you believe the behavior serves for the person What does he/she get? Or What exactly does he/she avoid?
Beyond FBA (PBSP) Target Behavior Operationalize Target Behavior Determine Measurement Procedure Gather Baseline Data Set goal for target Behavior Determine reinforcers
Beyond FBA (PBSP) Develop Intervention Plan Inform student of plan Implement the plan Progress Monitoring of Plan Thinning of reinforcers Fading of Cues
Steps for Changing Behavior 1.Decide on which behavior to change. 2.Define the behavior. 3.Collect data for a baseline on the behavior. 4.Intervene on the behavior. 5.Graph and evaluate the ongoing progress* *Revise the program if necessary
Changing Behavior Successfully Prioritize behaviors Work only with one or two behaviors at a time Define target behaviors in observable and measurable terms. Remember that behavioral problems are usually related to skill deficits!
Changing Behavior Successfully TEACHTEACH the behaviors you want the student to exhibit Require only gradual improvement in behavior Use procedures that are easily implemented and inexpensive Remember that behavioral problems are usually related to skill deficits!
Teaching Desired Behavior Use then fade supports to increase the likelihood of appropriate behavior Pair social reinforcers with tangible or activity reinforcers Use immediate consequences whenever possible Thoroughly organize and precisely introduce the program to the student
Group Activity Form Groups of 4 to 5 Choose student to conduct an FBA Choose tools to conduct FBA Create PBSP Report Out
Resources Special Connections http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/ cgi-bin/cgiwrap/specconn/index.php PaTTAN http://www.pattan.net