Presentation on theme: "Replacement Skills Individualized Intensive Interventions:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Replacement Skills Individualized Intensive Interventions: Promoting Social Emotional CompetenceIndividualized Intensive Interventions:Replacement SkillsIntroduce the speakers and today’s topic.
2 PBISSupportsWe are continuing to move up the pyramid, building on our base of nurturing relationships, supportive environments and intentional teaching of social skills.Remember that while all children benefit from the bottom layers of the pyramid, this top layer applies to only about 5% of the early childhood population.Note that the bottom layers are the “supports” part of PBIS – supporting positive behavior in all children.The top level, “interventions” is a very elaborate, thorough and effective process.When supports and interventions are combined together, it creates an early childhood environment which increases positive behaviors in all children.Explain that today you will be talking about how challenging behavior occurs and is maintained through environmental factors.Note that you will discuss a method for analyzing challenging behavior as it occurs within natural contexts that may be used to identify the purpose of challenging behavior.Note that participants will view video clips that will offer a context from which they can practice those methods.Finally, explain that participants will learn how to use multiple sources of data to determine the function of challenging behavior, and they will have an opportunity to apply those skills with a case study example.
3 Challenging BehaviorWhat we are referring to when we say “challenging behavior” is:Any repeated pattern of behavior that interferes with learning or engagement in pro-social interactions with peers and adults.Behaviors that are not responsive to the use of developmentally appropriate guidance procedures.Prolonged tantrums, physical and verbal aggression, disruptive vocal and motor behavior (e.g., screaming, stereotypy), property destructions, self-injury, noncompliance, and withdrawalWhat we are referring to when we say "challenging behavior" is:Any repeated pattern of behavior that interferes with learning or engagement in prosocial interactions with peers and adults.Behaviors that are not responsive to the use of developmentally appropriate guidance procedures.These behavior patterns can include:Prolonged tantrums, physical and verbal aggression, disruptive vocal and motor behavior (e.g., screaming, stereotypy), property destruction, self-injury, noncompliance, and withdrawal.
4 Why Children Engage in Challenging Behavior Challenging behavior communicatesUsed instead of language by a child who has limited social or communication skills.Challenging behavior worksChallenging behavior results in the child gaining access to something (i.e., obtain/request/power) or someone or avoiding something or someone (i.e., escape/protest).Challenging behavior communicatesExplain that challenging behavior carries meaning and communicates a message.In some instances, when children do not have the language skills necessary to communicate appropriately, they will resort to using challenging behavior as a means of communication.A child who has limited social skills or has learned that challenging behavior will result in meeting his/her needs may also use challenging behavior instead of language.Challenging Behavior WorksChildren engage in challenging behavior because "it works" for them.Challenging behavior results in the child gaining access to something or someone (i.e., obtain) or avoiding something or someome (i.e., escape).
5 Behavior Support PlanBehavior Hypotheses- Purpose of the behavior, your best guess about why the behavior occursPrevention Strategies- Ways to make events and interactions that trigger challenging behavior easier for the child to manageReplacement Skills– New skills to teach throughout the day to replace the challenging behaviorResponses- What adults will do when the challenging behavior occurs to ensure that the challenging behavior is not maintained and the new skill is learnedExplain that it is important to develop a hypothesis about why a behavior may occur before teaching the child new strategies and skills.
6 Behavior HypothesisExpands on the behavior equation and incorporates what you have learned from observations and interviewsIncludes information about:Function of the behaviorTriggers of the challenging behaviorDescription of the challenging behaviorResponses that maintain the challenging behaviorShow parts of a hypothesis and read explanations. The colors on the slide identify the parts of the behavior hypothesis
7 Terrance’s Hypothesis Statement To avoid sharing or to maintain solitary use of toys or activities, Terrance uses physical aggression. When children attempt to use toys he has played with or is playing with, Terrance will hit and kick them. Adults remove the injured child from the area and provide Terrance with negative attention (e.g. scolding). Terrance maintains use of the toy or activity.Ask participants to share their hypothesis.Click to reveal they hypothesis statement. Read the behavior hypothesis.Identify the parts of the hypothesis and how they relate to the behavior equation.
8 Not Sure About the Hypothesis? What would make the challenging behavior stop? Is it something you would provide or allow the child to access? Or is there something to remove? Or can you allow the child to leave?If still unsure, collect more data in the same context.Some challenging behavior may have the same form but serve multiple functions.Some challenging behaviors may begin around one function (e.g. escape) and continue to serve another function (e.g. gain attention).If one is unsure of the hypotheses that have been developed, it is important to think about “what would make the challenging behavior stop.” One could also ask: “Is there something that could be done to allow the child to obtain a desired item/activity or escape an activity/use of an item?”If after thinking about these things, you are still unsure, collect more data in the same context. It is important to be aware that some challenging behavior may have the same form but serve multiple functions. It is also important to realize that some challenging behaviors may begin around one function (e.g., escape) and continue to serve another function (e.g., gain attention).
9 Behavior Support PlanBehavior Hypotheses- Purpose of the behavior; your best guess about why the behavior occursPrevention Strategies- Ways to make events and interactions that trigger challenging behavior easier for the child to manageReplacement Skills– New skills to teach throughout the day to replace the challenging behaviorResponses- What adults will do when the challenging behavior occurs to ensure that the challenging behavior is not maintained and the new skill is learned
10 Teaching Replacement Skills Teach alternative behavior to challenging behavior.Replacement skills must be efficient and effective (i.e., work quickly for the child).Consider skills that child already has.Make sure the reward for appropriate behavior is consistent.Ask “If we canʼt let children use challenging behavior to express their needs, how can they express them in ways that are appropriate?”Point out that the new skill must replace the challenging behavior and act as the alternative behavior to challenging behavior.Point out that the new skill must be efficient and effective.Suggest that participants consider what skills the child already has that might serve as a replacement behavior.Explain that participants should make sure that when the child uses the replacement skill, there is consistent positive feedback
11 Functional Equivalence Identify an acceptable way that the child can deliver the same message.Make sure that the new response is socially appropriate and will access the child’s desired outcome.Teach the child a skill that honors that function of the behavior (e.g., if child wants out of activity, teach child to gesture “finished”).The instruction of replacement skills is based on the notion that whenever possible, the most effective intervention is to give the child a new way to communicate the message of the behavior. Rather than ignoring the message, we provide the child with a “functionally equivalent” means of communication.
12 Escape (e.g., activity, demands, social interaction) Possible Replacement SkillsRequest breakSet goalsRequest helpFollow scheduleParticipate in routineChoiceSelf-managementSay “No”Say “All done”Identify and express feelingsUse supports to follow rulesAnticipate transitionsShow the next two slides of possible new responses for “escape” and “obtain” behavior. Review a few examples.Stress to participants that these lists are only a sample of possible replacement skills for escape/obtain behavior. Point out that the skills that are bolded and underlined on the PowerPoint slides are skills we will discuss through photograph examples and video vignettes. However, they are not the only skills that should be used when trying to teach replacement skills. Once we go over all of the examples, we will review some of the skills for which examples were not provided.***Note that the replacement skills that are taught to an individual child MUST match the purpose (function) of the challenging behavior to be effective.
13 Obtain (e.g., attention, object, activity) Possible Replacement SkillsFollow scheduleParticipate in routineSelf-managementRequest helpTeach delay of reinforcementRequest attentionChoiceAsk for a hugAsk for a turnAsk for itemShow the next two slides of possible new responses for “escape” and “obtain” behavior. Review a few examples.Stress to participants that these lists are only a sample of possible replacement skills for escape/obtain behavior. Point out that the skills that are bolded and underlined on the PowerPoint slides are skills we will discuss through photograph examples and video vignettes. However, they are not the only skills that should be used when trying to teach replacement skills. Once we go over all of the examples, we will review some of the skills for which examples were not provided.***Note that the replacement skills that are taught to an individual child MUST match the purpose (function) of the challenging behavior to be effective.
14 Scripted StoriesScripted stories provide a script for the child about social situations and expectations.The story is written from the child’s perspective.The story includes descriptive, perspective, and directive sentences.The story must match the child’s symbolic and receptive communication level.Scripted stories provide a script for the child about social situations and expectations. The story is written from the childʼs perspective and includes descriptive, perspective, and directive sentences. The story is also written in a way that matches the childʼs symbolic and receptive communication level. We have placed “scripted stories” in this section on “replacement skills” because often, when scripted stories are used, they are to teach children new skills by providing the child the “script” for using a new skill. Scripted stories can also prevent challenging behavior because children gain a clearer understanding of expectations and perceptions of others.Finally, scripted stories also support the adult in responding to behavior in new ways. They give the adult a tool to use for redirection or prompting the desired response.
15 Scripted StoriesRefer group to the handout, Scripted Stories for Social Situations
16 Social Skills Instruction Determine skill to be taught; be specific (what does the behavior look like?).Ensure that opportunities to teach and practice the skill are available.Decide on method of instruction (e.g. role play, prompt and acknowledge positive behavior, etc.).Teach skill.Provide opportunities to practice skill.Reinforce skill use in natural contexts.Determine the skill to be taught; be specific. Ensure that there are opportunities to teach and practice the skill. Decide on the method of instruction (teaching strategies will be discussed toward the end of this section).Provide opportunities to practice the skill during ongoing activities and routines. Reinforce the skill in natural contexts.
17 Self-ManagementIdentify an observable behavior that the child will self- manage.Visually display behaviors for the child.Provide instruction to the child on the targeted skill.Give child a mechanism to monitor engagement in the behavior through a checklist or chart.Provide positive attention to the child for engaging in the behavior and using the self-monitoring system.Self-management is a method of helping children monitor their own behaviors. In order to do this, identify a behavior that the child will self-manage. Visually display behaviors for the child (e.g., pictures, posters). Provide instruction to the child on the targeted skill. Give the child a mechanism to monitor the skill (e.g., a checklist or chart).Provide positive attention to the child for engaging in the behavior and using the self-monitoring system. Self-management may result in a reward (e.g., activity, certificate) but must not be used to take rewards or privileges away. Self-management is a strategy that may be used with children older than 3 who have good language and cognitive skills.
18 When You Can’t Honor the Function of the Challenging Behavior… Teach tolerance for delay in achieving the reinforcer (e.g. help the child stay engaged by giving a signal about how long to hang in “two more songs, then all done.”)Provide choices (“You can put a sticker or a stamp on your chart, but you need to take meds.”)‘First, then’ contingency (“First, wash hands with the wipes or at the sink. Then, snack.”)Provide preferred items as distraction (“Sit in car seat; you can have teddy bear or you can have blanket.”)Teach child to anticipate and participate (e.g. provide a transition warning and a visual schedule so the child can anticipate the transition and actively participate.)There are occasions when you canʼt honor the function of the challenging behavior. For example, if the child has to transition from the playground to classroom or if the child must sit in the car seat. This slide includes strategies to use when honoring the function is not possible.
19 Designing Replacement Skill Instruction Procedures Select a skill to teach.Select a method of instruction.Follow steps of instructional procedure systematically.Teach throughout the day.When teaching replacement skills, one needs to choose a teaching strategy that fits the childʼs skill repertoire, the teacherʼs teaching style, and skill being taught. The new skill should be taught systematically through the use of a planned procedure. Examples of teaching strategies would be: Most to least prompting, least to most prompting, and incidental teaching procedure
20 Activity: Action Planning Take some time to fill out your Action PlanInclude in your Action Plan:Identify 1-2 children in your classroom who will benefit from replacement skillsDecide which skills will work best for themDecide how you will put those skills into actionHave participants complete Action PlanAsk for volunteers to report to the group.HO : Action Plan
21 Questions? ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Scripted Stories for Social Situations A Great Day at SchoolDealing with Anger
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