3 Before Conducting an FBA… Assess the overall classroom environmentAsk your self if the student is “aware” of the expected behaviorsTalk with Teachers, parents, and student to see if there are any potential “setting events” that you may not be aware ofMOST IMPORTANT~ Be sure that all universal interventions are already being practiced!!
4 FBA: A Step by Step Process Every behavior serves a purpose Your job is to find that purpose and replace the problem behavior with a more appropriate one.
5 Step 1. Identify Behavior: Describe in terms that are observable and measurable Example: Physical Aggression Observable: Striking or hitting another person with an open or closed fist. Measurable: Observed when student reaches arm to another person and strikes them on part of their body. This will be measured using event recording. Each occurrence of hitting will be measured as one event.
6 Sources of Data Step 2: Collect Data: Interviews Record Review Behavior AssessmentQuestionnaires, checklists, behavior rating scalesDirect ObservationFunctional AnalysisSeek triangulation of data to support hypothesesSource 2Source 1Source 3
7 The ABC’s of BehaviorSETTING EVENT: Situations or characteristics that “set up” the problem?ANTECEDENT: what happens before the behavior to “trigger it”?BEHAVIOR: what is the specific problem behavior?CONSEQUENCE: our response/”the payoff”?
8 Types of Observations Descriptive and Anecdotal Recording (ABC) Antecedent Behavior Consequence12: child sat next Sara hit child child left area- Sarato Sara sitting aloneStructured ObservationsInterval Recording (observe during interval times)Event Recording (tally the number of events)Duration Recording (how long the behavior lasts)Latency Recording (record time between antecedent and behavior)
9 Setting Events Look and Listen for … Broader issues that may be influencing behavior:Daily activity schedulePredictability of routinesVariety of activities or materialsSocial relationshipsPreferences of the studentMedical and physical issues (nutrition, illness, medications, sleep patterns)Challenging family situations
10 Antecedents or Triggers Look and Listen For… Under what circumstances is the behavior most/least likelyChanges in the environmentTime of day/activitiesClarity of expectations of activity/taskReinforcement of expected behaviorNature of interactions (tone, proximity, contact)Amount & type of attention (peer, group, adult)Child’s ability matched to the activity
11 Maintaining Consequences Look and Listen For… WHAT DO THEY GET or AVOID?Social reaction/attentionChange in activity/routineIncreases assistance from adults or peersAccess to materials, activities, food/drinkSensory stimulation or reductionChange in the physical environmentAllowed space or movementDelays activity/eventAvoids negative attention
12 Step 3. Formulate your hypothesis The WHY’s of Behavior Pos ReinfNeg Reinf
13 Step 4. Develop a Behavior Intervention Plan Make the behavior:irrelevant (no longer meaningful),inefficient (i.e., teach a socially appropriate replacement behavior that can achieve the same function), andineffective (i.e., minimize the likelihood of any reinforcement when the problem behaviors occur)
14 Step 5. EvaluateBe sure to create a fidelity of treatment plan (who, what where, when, why?)Follow-up to see if the intervention is workingContinue to take dataInterview key stakeholdersModify if needed
15 Step 6: Plan for Sustainability Self-managementSelf- advocacySelf-regulation