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The Hip. Pelvic (Hip) Girdle Two hip bones (each also called coxal bone or os coxae) – Attach the lower limbs to the axial skeleton with strong ligaments.

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Presentation on theme: "The Hip. Pelvic (Hip) Girdle Two hip bones (each also called coxal bone or os coxae) – Attach the lower limbs to the axial skeleton with strong ligaments."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Hip

2 Pelvic (Hip) Girdle Two hip bones (each also called coxal bone or os coxae) – Attach the lower limbs to the axial skeleton with strong ligaments – Transmit weight of upper body to lower limbs – Support pelvic organs

3 Os coxae Each hip bone consists of three fused bones: ilium, ischium, and pubis

4 Together with the sacrum and the coccyx, these bones form the bony pelvis

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7 Figure 7.29 Coxal bone (os coxae or hip bone) llium Sacroiliac joint Iliac fossa Pubic bone Ischium Sacrum Base of sacrum Sacral promontory Pelvic brim Acetabulum Pubic crest Pubic symphysis Iliac crest Coccyx Pubic arch Anterior inferior iliac spine Anterior superior iliac spine Pubic tubercle PLAY Animation: Rotatable pelvis

8 Hip Bone Three regions 1.Ilium Superior region of the coxal bone Auricular surface articulates with the sacrum (sacroiliac joint) 2.Ischium Posteroinferior part of hip bone 3.Pubis Anterior portion of hip bone Midline pubic symphysis joint

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10 Anterior Superior Iliac Spine

11 Acetabulum

12 Ischial tuberosity

13 Figure 7.30a Ilium Posterior gluteal line* Posterior superior iIiac spine Greater sciatic notch Posterior inferior iliac spine* Ischial body Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Ischial tuberosity Ischium Ischial ramus Obturator foramen Inferior gluteal line Acetabulum Pubic body Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine* Pubis Inferior ramus of pubis* (a) Lateral view, right hip bone

14 Figure 7.30b Iliac fossa Ilium Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine* Pubic tubercle Inferior ramus of pubis Posterior superior iliac spine Obturator foramen Body of the ilium Ischium Ischial ramus (b) Medial view, right hip bone Ischial spine* Lesser sciatic notch Greater sciatic notch Posterior inferior iliac spine Articular surface of pubis (at pubic symphysis)*

15 Comparison of Male and Female Pelves Female pelvis – Adapted for childbearing – True pelvis (inferior to pelvic brim) defines birth canal – Cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has greater capacity

16 Comparison of Male and Female Pelves Male pelvis – Tilted less forward – Adapted for support of male’s heavier build and stronger muscles – Cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep A man’s hip

17 Comparison of Male and Female Pelves CharacteristicFemaleMale Bone thicknessLighter, thinner, and smoother Heavier, thicker, and more prominent markings Pubic arch/angle80˚– 90˚50˚– 60˚ AcetabulaSmall; farther apartLarge; closer together SacrumWider, shorter; sacral curvature is accentuated Narrow, longer; sacral promontory more ventral CoccyxMore movable; straighterLess movable; curves ventrally

18 Table 7.4

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21 The Lower Limb Carries the weight of the body Subjected to exceptional forces Three segments of the lower limb – Thigh: femur – Leg: tibia and fibula – Foot: 7 tarsal bones in the ankle, 5 metatarsal bones in the metatarsus, and 14 phalanges in the toes

22 Femur Largest and strongest bone in the body Articulates proximally with the acetabulum of the hip and distally with the tibia and patella

23 Figure 7.31 Neck Fovea capitis Greater trochanter Inter- trochanteric crest Head Intertrochanteric line Lesser trochanter Gluteal tuberosity Linea aspera Lateral condyle Lateral epicondyle Intercondylar fossa Medial and lateral supra- condylar lines Medial condyle Medial epicondyle Adductor tubercle Anterior viewPosterior view (b) Femur (thigh bone) Lateral epicondyle Patellar surface Posterior Facet for medial condyle of femur Facet for lateral condyle of femur Surface for patellar ligament Apex Anterior (a) Patella (kneecap)

24 Bones of the Leg Tibia Medial leg bone Receives the weight of the body from the femur and transmits it to the foot

25 Bones of the leg Fibula Not weight bearing; no articulation with femur Site of muscle attachment Connected to tibia by interosseous membrane Articulates with tibia via proximal and distal tibiofibular joints

26 Figure 7.32a Medial condyle Articular surface Tibial tuberosity Interosseous membrane Anterior border Tibia Medial malleolus Intercondylar eminence Proximal tibiofibular joint Distal tibiofibular joint Lateral malleolus Lateral condyle Fibula Head (a) Anterior view

27 Figure 7.32b Medial condyle Articular surface of lateral condyle Articular surface of medial condyle Articular surface Interosseous membrane Tibia Fibula Head of fibula Medial malleolus Lateral malleolus (b) Posterior view

28 Foot: Tarsals Seven tarsal bones form the posterior half of the foot Talus transfers most of the weight from the tibia to the calcaneus Other tarsal bones: cuboid, navicular, and the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms

29 Foot: Metatarsals and Phalanges Metatarsals: – Five metatarsal bones (#1 to #5) – Enlarged head of metatarsal 1 forms the “ball of the foot” Phalanges – The 14 bones of the toes – Each digit (except the hallux) has three phalanges – Hallux has no middle phalanx

30 Figure 7.33a Medial cuneiform Phalanges Metatarsals Tarsals Navicular Intermediate cuneiform Talus Calcaneus (a) Superior view Cuboid Lateral cuneiform Proximal Middle Distal Trochlea of talus

31 Figure 7.33b Facet for medial malleolus Calcaneal tuberosity (b) Medial view Intermediate cuneiform Sustentac- ulum tali (talar shelf) Talus Navicular First metatarsal Medial cuneiform Calcaneus PLAY Animation: Rotatable bones of the foot

32 Arches of the Foot Arches are maintained by interlocking foot bones, ligaments, and tendons Arches allow the foot to bear weight Three arches – Lateral longitudinal – Medial longitudinal – Transverse

33 Figure 7.34a Medial longitudinal arch Transverse arch Lateral longitudinal arch (a) Lateral aspect of right foot

34 Developmental Aspects: Fetal Skull Infant skull has more bones than the adult skull Skull bones such as the mandible and frontal bones are unfused At birth, skull bones are connected by fontanelles – Fontanelles Unossified remnants of fibrous membranes between fetal skull bones Four fontanelles – Anterior, posterior, mastoid, and sphenoid

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