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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bell Ringer!!!! (All Bell Ringers Due on Friday) What bones articulate with the manubrium? How would a complete.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bell Ringer!!!! (All Bell Ringers Due on Friday) What bones articulate with the manubrium? How would a complete."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bell Ringer!!!! (All Bell Ringers Due on Friday) What bones articulate with the manubrium? How would a complete fracture of the dens affect the mobility of the vertebral column? What bones contain the paranasal sinuses?

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton eViewer?action=2&resid=12835

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bones of the limbs and their girdles Pectoral girdle attaches the upper limbs to the body trunk Pelvic girdle secures the lower limbs

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder Girdle) The Clavicles and the scapulae Attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton Provide attachment sites for muscles that move the upper limbs

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Clavicles (Collarbones) Doubly curved bones….curves ensure that clavicle will fracture away from body to avoid subclavian artery Flattened acromial (lateral) end articulates with the scapula Cone-shaped sternal (medial) end articulates with the sternum Act as braces to hold the scapulae and arms out laterally

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.24b Acromial (lateral) end (b)Right clavicle, superior view Posterior Sternal (medial) end Anterior

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) Situated on the dorsal surface of rib cage, between ribs 2 and 7 Flat and triangular, with three borders and three angles Glenoid cavity articulates with humerus and is shallow which allow great flexibility and range- of-motion but poorly reinforced…shoulders easily dislocate

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.25a Acromion Coracoid process Suprascapular notch Superior border Superior angle Subscapular fossa Medial border Inferior angle Glenoid cavity Lateral border (a) Right scapula, anterior aspect

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.25b Superior angle Medial border Coracoid process Suprascapular notch Acromion Glenoid cavity at lateral angle Lateral border Infraspinous fossa Spine (b) Right scapula, posterior aspect Supraspinous fossa

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.25c Coracoid process Glenoid cavity Acromion Infraspinous fossa Spine (c) Right scapula, lateral aspect Infraglenoid tubercle Supraglenoid tubercle Supraspinous fossa Subscapular fossa Inferior angle Supraspinous fossa Infraspinous fossa Subscapular fossa PosteriorAnterior

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Upper Limb 30 bones form the skeletal framework of each upper limb Arm Humerus Forearm Radius and ulna Hand 8 carpal bones in the wrist 5 metacarpal bones in the palm 14 phalanges in the fingers

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Largest, longest bone of upper limb Articulates superiorly with glenoid cavity of scapula Articulates inferiorly with radius and ulna Humerus

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.26a Capitulum Head of humerus Coronoid fossa Medial epicondyle Trochlea (a) Anterior view

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bones of the Forearm Ulna Medial bone in forearm Forms the major portion of the elbow joint with the humerus Radius Lateral bone in forearm Head articulates with capitulum of humerus and with radial notch of ulna Interosseous membrane connects the radius and ulna along their entire length

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.27a-b Olecranon process Trochlear notch Coronoid process Styloid process of radius Radius Neck of radius Head of radius Head of ulna Styloid process of ulna Interosseous membrane Ulna Head Neck Radial tuberosity Radius Styloid process of radius (a) Anterior view(b) Posterior view

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.27c-d (c) Proximal portion of ulna, lateral view Olecranon process Trochlear notch Coronoid process Radial notch View (d) Distal ends of the radius and ulna at the wrist Ulnar notch of radius Head of ulna Styloid process Articulation for scaphoid Articulation for lunate Styloid process View

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.26c-d Coronoid fossa Radius Radial tuberosity Head of radius Capitulum Trochlea (c) Anterior view at the elbow region Humerus Medial epicondyle Coronoid process of ulna Ulna Radial notch Olecranon fossa Ulna Olecranon process Medial epicondyle (d) Posterior view of extended elbow Humerus Lateral epicondyle Head Radius Neck

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hand: Carpus Eight bones in two rows Proximal row Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform proximally Distal row Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate distally Only scaphoid and lunate articulate with radius to form wrist joint

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Some Lads Try Positions That They Can’t Handle ScaphoidTrapezium Lunate Trapezoid Triquetrum Capitate Pisiform Hamate

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hand: Metacarpus and Phalanges Metacarpus Five metacarpal bones (#1 to #5) form the palm Phalanges Each finger (digit), except the thumb, has three phalanges—distal, middle, and proximal Fingers are numbered 1–5, beginning with the thumb (pollex) Thumb has no middle phalanx

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.28a-b Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Phalanges Carpals Radius Proximal Middle Distal Triquetrum Lunate Capitate Hamate Pisiform Metacarpals Carpals (b) Posterior view of left hand Ulna Base Shaft Head Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Carpals (a) Anterior view of left hand Radius Sesamoid bones

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bell Ringer!!!! (All Bell Ringers Due on Friday) List the 8 carpals in order from proximal to distal starting with radius and moving to ulna (remember, use anatomic position) Which bones play the major role in forming the elbow joint? Which phalanx is a wedding band customarily worn on? When you are finished, please turn them in with your coloring packets!

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pelvic (Hip) Girdle Two hip bones (each also called coxal bone or os coxae) Attach the lower limbs to the axial skeleton with strong ligaments Transmit weight of upper body to lower limbs Support pelvic organs Each hip bone consists of three fused bones: ilium, ischium, and pubis Together with the sacrum and the coccyx, these bones form the bony pelvis

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.29 Coxal bone (os coxae or hip bone) llium Sacroiliac joint Iliac fossa Pubic bone Ischium Sacrum Base of sacrum Pelvic brim Acetabulum Pubic symphysis Iliac crest Coccyx Pubic arch

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hip Bone Three regions 1.Ilium Superior region of the coxal bone Auricular surface articulates with the sacrum (sacroiliac joint) 2.Ischium Posteroinferior part of hip bone 3.Pubis Anterior portion of hip bone Midline pubic symphysis joint

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.30a Ilium Ala Ischium Obturator foramen Acetabulum Iliac crest Pubis (a) Lateral view, right hip bone

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.30b Iliac fossa Ilium Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Posterior superior iliac spine Obturator foramen Body of the ilium Ischium (b) Medial view, right hip bone Auricular surface Articular surface of pubis (at pubic symphysis)

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparison of Male and Female Pelves Female pelvis Adapted for childbearing True pelvis (inferior to pelvic brim) defines birth canal Cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has greater capacity

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparison of Male and Female Pelves Male pelvis Tilted less forward Adapted for support of male’s heavier build and stronger muscles Cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparison of Male and Female Pelves CharacteristicFemaleMale Bone thicknessLighter, thinner, and smoother Heavier, thicker, and more prominent markings Pubic arch/angle80˚– 90˚ (obtuse angle)50˚– 60˚ (acute angle) AcetabulaSmall; farther apartLarge; closer together SacrumWider, shorter; sacral curvature is accentuated Narrow, longer; sacral promontory more ventral CoccyxMore movable; straighterLess movable; curves ventrally

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.4

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.4

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.4

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pregnancy related changes to pelvis

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Lower Limb Carries the weight of the body Subjected to exceptional forces Three segments of the lower limb Thigh: femur Leg: tibia and fibula Foot: 7 tarsal bones in the ankle, 5 metatarsal bones in the metatarsus, and 14 phalanges in the toes

36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Femur Largest and strongest bone in the body Articulates proximally with the acetabulum of the hip and distally with the tibia and patella Hip socket (acetabulum) firmly secures head of femur into place and provides greater stability but less range-of-motion than pectoral girdle

37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.31 Neck Fovea capitis Greater trochanter Head Lesser trochanter Lateral condyle Lateral epicondyle Intercondylar fossa Medial condyle Medial epicondyle Anterior viewPosterior view (b) Femur (thigh bone) Lateral epicondyle Patellar surface Posterior Apex Anterior (a) Patella (kneecap)

38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bones of the Leg Tibia Medial leg bone Receives the weight of the body from the femur and transmits it to the foot Fibula Not weight bearing; no articulation with femur Site of muscle attachment Connected to tibia by interosseous membrane Articulates with tibia via proximal and distal tibiofibular joints

39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.32a Medial condyle Articular surface Interosseous membrane Tibia Medial malleolus Intercondylar eminence Lateral malleolus Lateral condyle Fibula Head (a) Anterior view

40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.32b Medial condyle Articular surface of lateral condyle Articular surface of medial condyle Articular surface Interosseous membrane Tibia Fibula Head of fibula Medial malleolus Lateral malleolus (b) Posterior view

41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Foot: Tarsals Seven tarsal bones form the posterior half of the foot Talus transfers most of the weight from the tibia to the calcaneus Other tarsal bones: cuboid, navicular, and the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms

42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Foot: Metatarsals and Phalanges Metatarsals: Five metatarsal bones (#1 to #5) Enlarged head of metatarsal 1 forms the “ball of the foot” Phalanges The 14 bones of the toes Each digit (except the hallux) has three phalanges Hallux has no middle phalanx

43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.33a Medial cuneiform Phalanges Metatarsals Tarsals Navicular Intermediate cuneiform Talus Calcaneus (a) Superior view Cuboid Lateral cuneiform Proximal Middle Distal

44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.33b (b) Medial view Intermediate cuneiform Talus Navicular First metatarsal Medial cuneiform Calcaneus

45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Arches of the Foot Arches are maintained by interlocking foot bones, ligaments, and tendons Arches allow the foot to bear weight Three arches Lateral longitudinal Medial longitudinal Transverse

46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.34a Medial longitudinal arch Transverse arch Lateral longitudinal arch (a) Lateral aspect of right foot


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