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This file reviews materials in Lab 4 and it gets you ready for Lab 6. Lab#4 -- Ex. 7 (Overview of the skeleton) and Ex. 8 (Axial skeleton) Lab#5 -- Ex.

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Presentation on theme: "This file reviews materials in Lab 4 and it gets you ready for Lab 6. Lab#4 -- Ex. 7 (Overview of the skeleton) and Ex. 8 (Axial skeleton) Lab#5 -- Ex."— Presentation transcript:

1 This file reviews materials in Lab 4 and it gets you ready for Lab 6. Lab#4 -- Ex. 7 (Overview of the skeleton) and Ex. 8 (Axial skeleton) Lab#5 -- Ex. 9 (Appendicular skeleton), Ex. 10 (Fetal skeleton), and Ex. 11 (Articulations and body movements) Lab#6 -- the second lab practical (200 points) by Dr. Shaw, Zoology 251 Lab Coordinator, x7176; 1

2 Lab#4– Ex. 7: Overview of the skeleton 2

3 Axial skeleton (in khaki) and appendicular skeleton (in gray)— Students are required to ID these bones. 3

4 Four types of bone by shapes 4

5 Match the following bones to these four bone shapes 1._____ Vertebrae, sphenoid, ethmoid 2._____ The three bones in each of your fingers and toes (phalanges), humerus 3._____ Ribs, scapula, most skull bones, sternum 4._____ Kneecap (patella), calcaneus A. Long boneB. Short bone C. Flat boneD. Irregular bone 5

6 (a) Living(b) Dried Medullary cavity Periosteum Nutrient foramen Endosteum Compact bone Spongy bone Epiphysis Diaphysis Articular cartilage Epiphyseal line Red bone marrow Yellow bone marrow Epiphyseal line Articular cartilage 6 Nutrient artery Required terminologies are highlighted in green.

7 (a) Living bone (b) Dried bone 7 Practice 01

8 Periosteum Endosteum Perforating fibers Perforating canal Osteon Lacuna Spongy bone Compact bone Pelvic bone Nerve Blood vessel Bone marrow Lamella Lacunae (d) (c) (b) (a) Canaliculi Spongy bone Spicules Head of femur Central canal Collagen fibers Concentric lamellae Circumferential lamellae Central canal Trabeculae 20  m Trabecula 8 Required terminologies are highlighted in green.

9 Endosteum Central canals Osteons Circumferential lamellae Interstitial lamellae 9 Bone Model– All terminologies are required.

10 Periosteum Circumferential lamella Canaliculi (cellular extensions of osteocytes) Osteon showing collagen fibers Perforating fibers (in white) Perforating canal (with blood vessels inside) Osteocytes (bone cells) in lacunae (spaces) Lacunae Lamellae (each layer of tissue) Osteocytes with Canaliculi (cellular extensions of osteocytes) 10

11 Osteon showing _________ fibers Scientific name for bone cells. ID theses “holes.” Each of the concentric ring of the osteon is called ________________. ID “tiny canals” that use for communicating among bone cells. Practice 02 11

12 Lab#4– Ex. 8: Axial skeleton 12

13 Ex. 8: Axial skeleton; A- The cranial bones 13

14 Required bones and markings are highlighted in 3 different colors-- 1. Individual bones in green 3. Depressions, passages, and cavities in red (fissure, foramen, fossa, sinus, etc.) 2. Articulations, extensions, and projections in yellow (condyle, crest, facet, process, etc.) 14

15 Sinuses Crest Foramen Fossae Head Tubercle Crest Tuberosity Line Head Fovea Trochanters Fossae (a) Skull (lateral view) Epicondyles Condyles Alveolus Spine Condyle Process Lines Meatus (b) Scapula (posterior view) (c) Femur (posterior view) (d) Humerus (anterior view) Process Spine 15 Markings of bones (FYI only)

16 Frontal bone Coronal suture Lacrimal bone Squamous suture Infraorbital foramen Vomer Mandible Sphenoid bone Ethmoid bone Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mental foramen Temporal bone Supraorbital notch Mental protuberance Parietal bone Middle nasal concha Inferior nasal concha Supraorbital margin Supraorbital foramen 16 The skull, anterior view

17 17 The skull, anterior view Practice 03

18 Frontal bone Coronal suture Sagittal suture Sutural wormian bone Parietal bone Parietal foramen Lambdoid suture Occipital bone Posterior Anterior 18

19 Posterior Anterior 19 Practice 04

20 Parietal bone Frontal bone Lambdoid suture Sphenoid bone Temporal bone Zygomatic process External auditory meatus Mandible Temporal lines Coronal suture Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Infraorbital foramen Zygomatic bone Temporal process Zygomaticofacial foramen Maxilla Mental foramen Occipital bone Squamous suture Mandibular condyle Styloid process Mastoid process 20 The skull, right lateral view

21 21 The skull, right lateral view Practice 05

22 Zygomatic bone Lambdoid suture Foramen magnum Mastoid foramen Jugular foramen Stylomastoid foramen Carotid canal Intermaxillary suture Palatine bone Greater palatine foramen Medial pterygoid plate Lateral pterygoid plate Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Foramen lacerum Incisive foramen Sphenoid bone Zygomatic process Mandibular fossa Styloid process External auditory meatus Mastoid process Mastoid notch Condylar canal Temporal bone Superior nuchal line Inferior nuchal line Occipital bone (a) Inferior view Parietal bone Occipital condyle Vomer Posterior nasal aperture Palatine process of maxilla Basilar part of occipital bone External occipital protuberance 22

23 (a) Inferior view 23 Practice 06

24 Mastoid part Mastoid process Temporal bone (lateral surface) Styloid process Tympanic part Squamous part Squamous suture Zygomatic process Mandibular fossa Mastoid notch External acoustic meatus 24 Lateral surface of temporal bone

25 Hyoid Larynx Styloid process Stylohyoid muscle Greater horn Lesser horn Body 25

26 Optic foramen Lesser wing Greater wing Lesser wing Greater wing Foramen ovale Body Sella turcica Dorsum sellae Foramen rotundum Hypophyseal fossa Foramen ovale Lateral pterygoid plate Medial pterygoid plate Pterygoid processes Foramen spinosum (a) Superior view (b) Posterior view Dorsum sellae Anterior clinoid process Superior orbital fissure Foramen rotundum 26

27 (a) Superior view (b) Posterior view 27 Practice 07

28 Sphenoid sinus Frontal sinus Ethmoid sinus Maxillary sinus 28

29 (b) Superior view of cranial floor Cribriform foramina Crista galli Diploe (spongy bone) Sphenoid bone Temporal bone Parietal bone Occipital bone Sella turcica Frontal bone Optic foramen Foramen rotundum Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Foramen magnum Jugular foramen Hypoglossal canal Internal acoustic meatus Groove for venous sinus Petrous part of temporal bone Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone 29

30 (b) Superior view of cranial floor 30 Practice 08

31 Orbital plate Crista galli Cribriform plate Cribriform foramina Ethmoidal Cells (sinuses) Perpendicular plate Superior nasal concha Middle nasal concha 31

32 Ex. 8: Axial skeleton; B- The facial bones 32

33 Frontal sinus Inferior nasal concha Anterior nasal spine Palatine process of maxilla Incisive foramen Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Nasal cartilages Superior Middle Sphenoid sinus Palatine bone Sphenoid bone Crista galli Sella turcica Cribriform plate Cribriform foramina Occipital bone Lip Frontal bone Incisor Nasal conchae: 33

34 Zygomatic process Maxillary bone Infraorbital foramen 34

35 Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Supraorbital foramen Infraorbital foramen Maxilla Frontal bone 35

36 Coronal suture Frontal bone Sphenoid sinus Frontal sinus Crista galli Parietal bone Temporal bone Mandibular foramen Styloid process Squamous suture Lambdoid suture Sella turcica Occipital bone Vomer Palatine bone Maxilla Mandible Nasal bone (b) Median section Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone Palatine process of maxilla 36

37 Mandibular condyles Condylar process Mandibular notch Coronoid process Mandibular foramen Body Mandibular angle Ramus Mental protuberance Mental foramen Alveolar process 37

38 38 Practice 09

39 Ex. 8: Axial skeleton; C- The vertebral column & the thoracic cage 39

40 Cervical vertebrae Thoracic vertebrae Atlas (C1) Axis (C2) C7 Lumbar vertebrae Sacrum Coccyx Anterior viewPosterior view T1 T12 L1 L5 S1 S5 40

41 Spinous process Lamina Pedicle Body (a) 2nd lumbar vertebra (L2), superior view Anterior Posterior Superior articular facet Transverse process Vertebral foramen Vertebral arch 41

42 (a) 2nd lumbar vertebra (L2), superior view Anterior Posterior 42 Practice 10

43 L1 L2 L3 Intervertebral disc Spinous process (b) Left lateral view Superior articular process of L1 Inferior vertebral notch of L1 Superior vertebral notch of L2 Inferior articular process of L3 Intervertebral foramen 43

44 L1 L2 L3 Intervertebral disc (b) Left lateral view Inferior vertebral notch of L1 Superior vertebral notch of L2 44 Practice 11

45 Anterior tubercle Anterior arch Posterior arch Posterior tubercle Superior articular facet Transverse foramen Lateral masses (a) Atlas ( C1) 45 Atlas: Lack body and spinous process

46 46 Identify this vertebra:______________ Practice 12

47 Inferior articular process Spinous process Lamina Dens (odontoid process) Superior articular facet Body Pedicle Transverse foramen Transverse process (b) Axis (C2) 47 C2-C6: have forked (bifid) spinous processes

48 Identify this vertebra: _______ 48 Practice 13

49 Superior costal facet Inferior costal facet Pedicle Body Bifid spinous process Lamina Spinous process Inferior articular process Inferior articular facet Spinous process Lamina Superior articular facet Superior articular process Superior articular facet (a) Cervical vertebrae (C2-C6): bifid spinous process (b) Thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12): having coastal facets (c) Lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5): Thick body; articular facets curved inward; squarish spinous process Superior views Lateral views Transverse foramen Transverse process Transverse costal facet Transverse process Transverse costal facet Transverse process 49

50 Transverse ridges (lines) Coccyx Ala S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Co1 Co2 Co3 Co4 (a)Sacrum; anterior view (smooth) Superior articular process Sacral Promontory (anterior border of the body of S1) Anterior sacral foramina 50

51 Horn Sacral hiatus Coccyx Sacral canal (b) Sacrum; posterior view (rough) Superior articular process Transverse process Posterior sacral foramina Lateral sacral crest Auricular surface Median sacral crest 51

52 Sternoclavicular joint Acromioclavicular joint Clavicle Scapula Jugular notch Clavicular notch Manubrium Angle Body Xiphoid process Costal cartilages Costal margin True ribs (1–7) T12 T1 L1 False ribs (8–12) Sternum: Pectoral girdle: Floating ribs (11–12) 52

53 Head (Vertebral end) Neck Tubercle (a) (Costa) Rib 1 53

54 Neck Shaft Head (Vertebral end) Superior Costal groove Inferior Tubercle Angle (b) (Costae) Ribs 2–10 Articular facet for transverse process Articular facets for vertebral bodies 54

55 (c) (Costae) Ribs 11–12 55

56 Head Neck Tubercle Rib 6 T6 (b) Superior view Rib 6 Inferior costal facet of T5 Superior articular facet of rib 6 Inferior articular facet of rib 6 Superior costal facet of T6 (a) Anterior view Vertebral body T5 Vertebral body T6 Transverse costal facet for rib 6 Superior articular facet Superior costal facet for rib 6 56

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