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This file reviews materials in Lab 4 and it gets you ready for Lab 6

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1 This file reviews materials in Lab 4 and it gets you ready for Lab 6
This file reviews materials in Lab 4 and it gets you ready for Lab 6. Lab#4 -- Ex. 7 (Overview of the skeleton) and Ex. 8 (Axial skeleton) Lab#5 -- Ex. 9 (Appendicular skeleton), Ex. 10 (Fetal skeleton), and Ex. 11 (Articulations and body movements) Lab#6 -- the second lab practical (200 points) by Dr. Shaw, Zoology 251 Lab Coordinator, x7176;

2 Lab#4– Ex. 7: Overview of the skeleton

3 Axial skeleton (in khaki) and appendicular skeleton (in gray)— Students are required to ID these bones. 3

4 Four types of bone by shapes

5 Match the following bones to these four bone shapes
_____ Vertebrae, sphenoid, ethmoid _____ The three bones in each of your fingers and toes (phalanges), humerus _____ Ribs, scapula, most skull bones, sternum _____ Kneecap (patella), calcaneus A. Long bone B. Short bone C. Flat bone D. Irregular bone Irregular bones (hip bone—in Saladin’s textbook is considered as a flat bone) Long bones Flat bones— Short bones -- include carpals, tarsals 5

6 Required terminologies are highlighted in green.
Articular cartilage Epiphysis Required terminologies are highlighted in green. Red bone marrow Epiphyseal line Medullary cavity Yellow bone marrow Periosteum Nutrient foramen Diaphysis Nutrient artery Endosteum Compact bone Spongy bone Epiphyseal line Epiphysis Articular cartilage 6 (a) Living (b) Dried

7 Practice 01 (a) Living bone (b) Dried bone 7

8 Required terminologies are highlighted in green.
Bone marrow Trabecula Pelvic bone Head of femur Spongy bone Compact bone (a) (c) Required terminologies are highlighted in green. Nerve Blood vessel Spicules Trabeculae Spongy bone Endosteum Periosteum Perforating fibers Perforating canal Central canal Osteon Lacuna Collagen fibers Lamella Lacunae Concentric lamellae Canaliculi Circumferential lamellae Central canal (b) 8 (d) 20 m

9 Bone Model– All terminologies are required.
Circumferential lamellae Osteons Endosteum Interstitial lamellae Central canals 9

10 Canaliculi (cellular extensions of osteocytes)
Lamellae (each layer of tissue) Osteon showing collagen fibers Circumferential lamella Periosteum Perforating canal (with blood vessels inside) Perforating fibers (in white) Osteocytes with Canaliculi (cellular extensions of osteocytes) Osteocytes (bone cells) in lacunae (spaces) Lacunae 10

11 Each of the concentric ring of the osteon is called ________________.
Osteon showing _________ fibers ID “tiny canals” that use for communicating among bone cells. Scientific name for bone cells. ID theses “holes.” Practice 02 11

12 Lab#4– Ex. 8: Axial skeleton

13 Ex. 8: Axial skeleton; A- The cranial bones

14 Required bones and markings are highlighted in 3 different colors--
1. Individual bones in green 2. Articulations, extensions, and projections in yellow (condyle, crest, facet, process, etc.) 3. Depressions, passages, and cavities in red (fissure, foramen, fossa, sinus, etc.) 14

15 Markings of bones (FYI only)
Lines Crest Sinuses Fovea Head Foramen Meatus Crest Head Trochanters Tubercle Process Condyle Alveolus Spine Foramen Tuberosity (a) Skull (lateral view) Line Process Spine Fossae Epicondyles Fossae Condyles (c) Femur (posterior view) (d) Humerus (anterior view) (b) Scapula (posterior view) 15

16 The skull, anterior view
Frontal bone Supraorbital foramen Supraorbital notch Parietal bone Coronal suture Supraorbital margin Squamous suture Temporal bone Sphenoid bone Lacrimal bone Ethmoid bone Nasal bone Middle nasal concha Zygomatic bone Infraorbital foramen Inferior nasal concha Maxilla Vomer Mandible Mental foramen Mental protuberance 16

17 The skull, anterior view
Practice 03 17

18 Anterior Frontal bone Coronal suture Parietal bone Sagittal suture Sutural wormian bone Parietal foramen Lambdoid suture Occipital bone Posterior 18

19 Anterior Posterior Practice 04 19

20 The skull, right lateral view
Coronal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Temporal lines Lambdoid suture Ethmoid bone Sphenoid bone Nasal bone Occipital bone Lacrimal bone Squamous suture Zygomaticofacial foramen Temporal bone Infraorbital foramen Zygomatic process Zygomatic bone External auditory meatus Maxilla Mastoid process Temporal process Styloid process Mandible Mandibular condyle Mental foramen 20

21 The skull, right lateral view
Practice 05 21

22 22 Incisive foramen Palatine process of maxilla Intermaxillary suture
Zygomatic bone Palatine bone Zygomatic process Greater palatine foramen Posterior nasal aperture Medial pterygoid plate Lateral pterygoid plate Vomer Sphenoid bone Foramen ovale Mandibular fossa Foramen spinosum Foramen lacerum Styloid process Basilar part of occipital bone External auditory meatus Occipital condyle Carotid canal Mastoid process Stylomastoid foramen Mastoid notch Jugular foramen Temporal bone Foramen magnum Condylar canal Mastoid foramen Parietal bone Lambdoid suture Inferior nuchal line Superior nuchal line External occipital protuberance Occipital bone (a) Inferior view 22

23 (a) Inferior view Practice 06 23

24 Lateral surface of temporal bone
Squamous suture Squamous part Mastoid part Zygomatic process Mandibular fossa Mastoid notch External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Tympanic part Temporal bone (lateral surface) 24

25 Styloid process Stylohyoid muscle Hyoid Larynx Greater horn Body
Lesser horn Larynx Greater horn Body 25

26 26 Optic foramen Hypophyseal fossa Lesser wing Greater wing
Foramen rotundum Sella turcica Anterior clinoid process Dorsum sellae Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum (a) Superior view Lesser wing Dorsum sellae Greater wing Superior orbital fissure Body Foramen rotundum Foramen ovale Lateral pterygoid plate Medial pterygoid plate Pterygoid processes (b) Posterior view 26

27 (a) Superior view (b) Posterior view Practice 07 27

28 Sphenoid sinus Frontal sinus Ethmoid sinus Maxillary sinus 28

29 29 Diploe (spongy bone) Frontal bone Crista galli Cribriform plate
of ethmoid bone Cribriform foramina Sphenoid bone Optic foramen Foramen rotundum Sella turcica Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Temporal bone Internal acoustic meatus Petrous part of temporal bone Jugular foramen Parietal bone Groove for venous sinus Foramen magnum Occipital bone Hypoglossal canal (b) Superior view of cranial floor 29

30 (b) Superior view of cranial floor
Practice 08 30

31 31 Cribriform plate Crista galli Cribriform foramina Orbital plate
Superior nasal concha Ethmoidal Cells (sinuses) Middle nasal concha Perpendicular plate 31

32 Ex. 8: Axial skeleton; B- The facial bones

33 33 Crista galli Frontal bone Cribriform plate Frontal sinus
Cribriform foramina Nasal bone Sella turcica Nasal conchae: Superior Middle Sphenoid sinus Inferior nasal concha Nasal cartilages Occipital bone Sphenoid bone Anterior nasal spine Palatine bone Incisive foramen Lacrimal bone Lip Incisor Palatine process of maxilla 33

34 Zygomatic process Infraorbital foramen Maxillary bone 34

35 Frontal bone Supraorbital foramen Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla
Infraorbital foramen Maxilla 35

36 36 Coronal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Sphenoid sinus
Squamous suture Frontal sinus Crista galli Occipital bone Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Temporal bone Sella turcica Lambdoid suture Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone Nasal bone Vomer Palatine process of maxilla Styloid process Mandibular foramen Maxilla Palatine bone Mandible (b) Median section 36

37 Mandibular condyles Condylar process Coronoid process Mandibular notch
Mandibular foramen Alveolar process Ramus Mental foramen Mental protuberance Mandibular angle Body 37

38 Practice 09 38

39 Ex. 8: Axial skeleton; C- The vertebral column & the thoracic cage

40 40 Anterior view Posterior view Atlas (C1) Axis (C2)
Cervical vertebrae C7 T1 Thoracic vertebrae T12 L1 Lumbar vertebrae L5 S1 Sacrum S5 Coccyx Coccyx 40

41 (a) 2nd lumbar vertebra (L2), superior view
Posterior Spinous process Superior articular facet Lamina Vertebral arch Transverse process Pedicle Vertebral foramen Body Anterior (a) 2nd lumbar vertebra (L2), superior view 41

42 (a) 2nd lumbar vertebra (L2), superior view
Posterior Anterior (a) 2nd lumbar vertebra (L2), superior view Practice 10 42

43 Superior articular process of L1 Inferior vertebral notch of L1 L1
Intervertebral foramen Superior vertebral notch of L2 L2 Spinous process Intervertebral disc L3 Inferior articular process of L3 (b) Left lateral view 43

44 Inferior vertebral notch of L1 L1 Superior vertebral notch of L2 L2
Intervertebral disc L3 (b) Left lateral view Practice 11 44

45 Atlas: Lack body and spinous process
Anterior tubercle Anterior arch Superior articular facet Lateral masses Transverse foramen Posterior arch Posterior tubercle (a) Atlas ( C1) Atlas: Lack body and spinous process 45

46 Identify this vertebra:______________
Practice 12 46

47 C2-C6: have forked (bifid) spinous processes
Dens (odontoid process) Superior articular facet Body Transverse foramen Transverse process Pedicle Inferior articular process Lamina Spinous process (b) Axis (C2) C2-C6: have forked (bifid) spinous processes 47

48 Identify this vertebra: _______
Practice 13 48

49 Superior views Lateral views 49 Transverse process Spinous process
Bifid spinous process Lamina Superior articular facet Transverse foramen Body Transverse process Spinous process (a) Cervical vertebrae (C2-C6): bifid spinous process Inferior articular process Spinous process Superior articular facet Lamina Transverse process Transverse costal facet Superior costal facet Transverse costal facet Inferior costal facet Body Inferior articular facet (b) Thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12): having coastal facets Spinous process Spinous process Superior articular facet Superior articular process Transverse process Pedicle Body Spinous process (c) Lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5): Thick body; articular facets curved inward; squarish spinous process Inferior articular facet

50 Superior articular process
Sacral Promontory (anterior border of the body of S1) Ala S1 S2 Transverse ridges (lines) S3 Anterior sacral foramina S4 S5 Co1 Coccyx Co2 Co3 Co4 (a) Sacrum; anterior view (smooth) 50

51 Superior articular process Sacral canal Median sacral crest Auricular surface Lateral sacral crest Posterior sacral foramina Sacral hiatus Horn Transverse process Coccyx (b) Sacrum; posterior view (rough) 51

52 52 Sternoclavicular joint Sternum: Acromioclavicular joint T1
Jugular notch 1 Clavicular notch Pectoral girdle: Clavicle Manubrium Scapula 2 Angle 3 Body 4 True ribs (1–7) 5 Xiphoid process 6 Costal cartilages 7 1 1 8 12 Floating ribs (11–12) T12 False ribs (8–12) 9 10 L1 Costal margin 52

53 Head (Vertebral end) Neck Tubercle (a) (Costa) Rib 1 53

54 Articular facets for vertebral bodies
Tubercle Neck Head (Vertebral end) Superior Inferior Articular facet for transverse process Angle Articular facets for vertebral bodies Costal groove Shaft (b) (Costae) Ribs 2–10 54

55 (c) (Costae) Ribs 11–12 55

56 56 Inferior costal facet of T5 Vertebral Superior articular body T5
facet of rib 6 Rib 6 Inferior articular facet of rib 6 Vertebral body T6 Superior costal facet of T6 (a) Anterior view Superior articular facet Transverse costal facet for rib 6 Tubercle Superior costal facet for rib 6 Neck Rib 6 Head T6 (b) Superior view 56

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