2 Classification of Bones Bone are identified by:shapeinternal tissuesbone markings
3 Bone Shapes Flat bones Long bones Short bones Irregular bones Sutural bonesSesamoid bones
4 Flat Bones Thin with parallel surfaces Flattened and a bit curved Found in the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapulaResembles a sandwich of spongy bone between 2 layers of compact boneMiddle layer is called diploeFigure 6–1b
5 Flat BonesThe parietal bone of the skullFigure 6–2b
6 Long Bones Long and thin Found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, and toesFigure 6–1a
7 Short Bones Are small and cube-shaped bones Examples: Ankle bones wrist bonesFigure 6–1e
13 The Diaphysis Talkin’ ‘bout shaft Tubular shaft that forms the axis of long bonesA heavy wall of compact bone, or dense boneA central space called the marrow cavitYellow bone marrow (fat) is contained in the medullary cavity
17 Metaphysis The meeting point of diaphysis and epiphysis When the bone is growing the metaphysis consists of an epiphyseal plate. This is a layer of hyaline cartilage that allows the bone to grow in length.
18 MetaphysisWhen the bone stops growing the cartilage is replaced by bone and becomes the epiphyseal line (visible in X rays)
19 Structure of Short, Irregular, Flat and Sesamoid Bones Thin plates of periosteum-covered compact bone on the outside with endosteum-covered spongy bone (diploë) on the insideHave no diaphysis or epiphysesContain bone marrow between the trabeculae
20 Articular CartilageHyaline cartilage that covers the epiphyses in order to reduce frictionLeft over from fetal bone development
21 Marrow Cavity Space inside the diaphysis that contains the marrow Lined by the endosteum
22 Gross Anatomy of Bones: Bone Textures Compact bone – dense outer layerSpongy bone – honeycomb of trabeculae filled with yellow bone marrow
23 Compact (dense) BoneFound wherever stress is placed on a bone from one directionOsteons w/ concentric lamellaeInterstitial lamellaeCircumferential lamallaePerforating canalCentral canalsCanaliculi
25 Microscopic Structure of Bone: Compact Bone Figure 6.6a, b
26 Spongy (cancellous) bone Trabeculae: lattice of bony struts composed of layers of lamellae, canaliculiRed marrow fills spaces between trabeculaeDiploe: spongy bone layer filled with marrowFound where bone gets stress from many directions
30 Weight–Bearing BonesThe femur transfers weight from hip joint to knee joint:causing tension on the lateral side of the shaftand compression on the medial sideStructure is designed to transfer weight of upper body to tibia in calf, then on to the heel and arch of the foot.
33 Bone Markings Depressions or grooves: Projections: Holes and Tunnels: along bone surface; things run along themProjections:where tendons and ligaments attachfound at articulations with other bonesHoles and Tunnels:where blood and nerves enter bone
34 Bone Markings: Projections – Sites of Muscle and Ligament Attachment Tuberosity – rounded projectionCrest – narrow, prominent ridge of boneTrochanter – large, blunt, irregular surfaceLine – narrow ridge of boneTubercle – small rounded projectionEpicondyle – raised area above a condyleSpine – sharp, slender projectionProcess – any bony prominence
35 Bone Markings: Projections – Projections That Help to Form Joints Head – bony expansion carried on a narrow neckFacet – smooth, nearly flat articular surfaceCondyle – rounded articular projectionRamus – arm-like bar of bone
36 Bone Markings: Depressions and Openings Meatus – canal-like passagewaySinus – cavity within a boneFossa – shallow, basin-like depressionGroove – furrowFissure – narrow, slit-like openingForamen – round or oval opening through a bone
42 Bone Practical Wedsday 25 July Covers all bones on list Need to be able to identify each bone and bone part on disarticulated bones or skeletonKnow the basic functions of each bone and partKnow whether the bone is a left or a right (mostly for the appendicular skeleton)
76 ActivitiesWork with skulls and identify bones and bone parts from the listPalpate skull markings (list on page 132)Skull with sinuses exposed, fetal skullDisarticulated vertebrae, ribsSternum and ribs (on skeleton)Review Sheet due Weds. 1 Aug.
77 AdvicePay attention to the list. Everything you need to know is on it; if it’s in the book or on the review sheet but NOT on the list, just ignore it. (For this class!)You get out of it what you put into it