2 George Washington on Political Parties Washington did not like political parties, and believed they would divide the nationHe was however, partisan, and clearly favored Hamilton’s viewsHe tried to get Jefferson and Hamilton to work together, but they were so divided that they both resigned from the cabinet
3 Presidential Election of 1796 Both Federalists and Republicans held caucuses in which members of Congress and other leaders nominated, or chose, their parties’ candidates for officeFederalist John Adams won the election and became the second President of the United States
4 Presidential Election of 1796 Under the rules of the Constitution at that time, the person with the second-highest electoral vote total became vice-presidentRepublican Thomas Jefferson became vice-president, and so different political parties were represented as president and vice-president!
5 Presidential Election of 1796 John AdamsFederalist PresidentThomas JeffersonRepublican Vice-President
6 The XYZ AffairThe French viewed Jay’s Treaty as an American attempt to help the British in their war with FranceTo punish the United States, the French seized American ships that carried cargo to Britain
7 The XYZ AffairPresident Adams sent a team to Paris to try to resolve the dispute in the fall of 1797Instead of meeting with the Americans, the French sent three agents, who demanded a bribe and a loan for France from the Americans, but the Americans refused
8 The XYZ Affair Adams was furious and urged Congress to prepare for war In his report to Congress, Adams used the letters X, Y, and Z in place of the French agents’ names, and the event came to be called the XYZ affair
9 Alien and Sedition Acts After the XYZ affair, many grew angry at foreign attempts to influence their governmentThey became more suspicious of aliens – residents who are not citizensMany Europeans who had come to the United States in the 1790s supported the ideals of the French RevolutionSome Americans questioned whether these aliens would remain loyal if the United States went to war with France
10 Alien and Sedition Acts In 1798 Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition ActsSedition means activities aimed at weakening the governmentThe Alien and Sedition Acts allowed the president to imprison aliensThe president could also deport – send out of the country – those thought to be dangerous. President Adams was a strong supporter of these laws
11 Alien and Sedition Acts In 1798 Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition ActsSedition means activities aimed at weakening the governmentThe Alien and Sedition Acts allowed the president to imprison aliensThe president could also deport – send out of the country – those thought to be dangerous. President Adams was a strong supporter of these laws
12 Activity Work in your groups to complete the Alien and Sedition Acts worksheet.
13 Question 1Which acts dealt with citizenship? Which one dealt with censorship of people?
14 AnswerThe Alien and Naturalization Acts dealt with citizenship.
15 Alien ActsAllowed the president to imprison aliens and to send those he considered dangerous out of the country
16 Naturalization ActRequired that aliens be residents for 14 years instead of 5 years before they became eligible for U.S. citizenship
17 Answer (Continued)The Sedition Act dealt with censorship
18 Question 2How were people censored by the acts?
19 AnswerThe Sedition Act made it a crime to speak, write, or publish “false, scandalous, and malicious” criticisms of the government.
20 Question 3Why were the Alien and Sedition Acts passed?
21 AnswerThe Federalist-controlled Congress wanted to strengthen the federal government and silence Republican opposition.
23 AnswerThe Alien and Sedition Acts discouraged immigration and led some foreigners already in the country to leave, and convicted 10 Republican newspaper editors who had criticized the Federalists in government.
24 Question 5What 2 reactions were formed because of the acts?
25 Answer Opposition to Federalist party grows Led to movement to allow states to overturn federal laws
26 Question 6Critical Thinking: Do you think the Alien and Sedition Acts were set up purely to protect the country, or were there other reasons behind it? Explain.
27 AnswerIt was a crime to speak, write, or publish “false, scandalous, and malicious” criticisms of the governmentThe acts were set up to silence Republican opposition10 Republican newspaper editors who had criticized the Federalists in government were convicted
28 Question 7Critical Thinking: Think back to what you have learned about the Constitution. Are the Alien and Sedition Acts Constitutional? Why or why not?
29 AnswerNo, these acts are not constitutional. They violate freedom of speech and freedom of the press.
30 Domestic and Foreign Affairs Republicans saw the Alien and Sedition Acts as Federalist tyranny, and looked to the states to respond and protect people’s libertiesMadison and Jefferson wrote statements of protest and passed the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 and 1799These resolutions claimed that the Alien and Sedition Acts violated the Constitution, and declared that the states should not put them into actionThey further said that the states could nullify – legally overturn – federal laws they thought were unconstitutional
31 Domestic and Foreign Affairs The resolutions supported the principle of states’ rights, which held that the powers of the federal government were limited to those clearly granted by the ConstitutionTo prevent the federal government from becoming too powerful, the states should have all other powers not expressly forbidden to them.
32 Domestic and Foreign Affairs Federalists urged Adams to declare war on France, but instead he worked out a treaty in 1800 in which the French agreed to stop their attacks on American ships
33 Wrap UpEven though George Washington did not like political parties, how was he partisan?What are caucuses? Who won the election of 1796?Explain the XYZ affair. Why is it called that?Why were the Alien and Sedition Acts formed? What resolution overturned them?Explain the principle of states’ rights