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John Adams as President Lesson 9.3 Continued. George Washington on Political Parties Washington did not like political parties, and believed they would.

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Presentation on theme: "John Adams as President Lesson 9.3 Continued. George Washington on Political Parties Washington did not like political parties, and believed they would."— Presentation transcript:

1 John Adams as President Lesson 9.3 Continued

2 George Washington on Political Parties Washington did not like political parties, and believed they would divide the nation He was however, partisan, and clearly favored Hamilton’s views He tried to get Jefferson and Hamilton to work together, but they were so divided that they both resigned from the cabinet

3 Presidential Election of 1796 Both Federalists and Republicans held caucuses in which members of Congress and other leaders nominated, or chose, their parties’ candidates for office Federalist John Adams won the election and became the second President of the United States

4 Presidential Election of 1796 Under the rules of the Constitution at that time, the person with the second-highest electoral vote total became vice- president Republican Thomas Jefferson became vice-president, and so different political parties were represented as president and vice-president!

5 Presidential Election of 1796 John Adams Federalist President Thomas Jefferson Republican Vice-President

6 The XYZ Affair The French viewed Jay’s Treaty as an American attempt to help the British in their war with France To punish the United States, the French seized American ships that carried cargo to Britain

7 The XYZ Affair President Adams sent a team to Paris to try to resolve the dispute in the fall of 1797 Instead of meeting with the Americans, the French sent three agents, who demanded a bribe and a loan for France from the Americans, but the Americans refused

8 The XYZ Affair Adams was furious and urged Congress to prepare for war In his report to Congress, Adams used the letters X, Y, and Z in place of the French agents’ names, and the event came to be called the XYZ affair

9 Alien and Sedition Acts After the XYZ affair, many grew angry at foreign attempts to influence their government They became more suspicious of aliens – residents who are not citizens Many Europeans who had come to the United States in the 1790s supported the ideals of the French Revolution Some Americans questioned whether these aliens would remain loyal if the United States went to war with France

10 Alien and Sedition Acts In 1798 Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition Acts Sedition means activities aimed at weakening the government The Alien and Sedition Acts allowed the president to imprison aliens The president could also deport – send out of the country – those thought to be dangerous. President Adams was a strong supporter of these laws

11 Alien and Sedition Acts In 1798 Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition Acts Sedition means activities aimed at weakening the government The Alien and Sedition Acts allowed the president to imprison aliens The president could also deport – send out of the country – those thought to be dangerous. President Adams was a strong supporter of these laws

12 Activity Work in your groups to complete the Alien and Sedition Acts worksheet.

13 Question 1 Which acts dealt with citizenship? Which one dealt with censorship of people?

14 Answer The Alien and Naturalization Acts dealt with citizenship.

15 Alien Acts Allowed the president to imprison aliens and to send those he considered dangerous out of the country

16 Naturalization Act Required that aliens be residents for 14 years instead of 5 years before they became eligible for U.S. citizenship

17 Answer (Continued) The Sedition Act dealt with censorship

18 Question 2 How were people censored by the acts?

19 Answer The Sedition Act made it a crime to speak, write, or publish “false, scandalous, and malicious” criticisms of the government.

20 Question 3 Why were the Alien and Sedition Acts passed?

21 Answer The Federalist-controlled Congress wanted to strengthen the federal government and silence Republican opposition.

22 Question 4 What were the results of the acts?

23 Answer The Alien and Sedition Acts discouraged immigration and led some foreigners already in the country to leave, and convicted 10 Republican newspaper editors who had criticized the Federalists in government.

24 Question 5 What 2 reactions were formed because of the acts?

25 Answer Opposition to Federalist party grows Led to movement to allow states to overturn federal laws

26 Question 6 Critical Thinking: Do you think the Alien and Sedition Acts were set up purely to protect the country, or were there other reasons behind it? Explain.

27 Answer It was a crime to speak, write, or publish “false, scandalous, and malicious” criticisms of the government The acts were set up to silence Republican opposition 10 Republican newspaper editors who had criticized the Federalists in government were convicted

28 Question 7 Critical Thinking: Think back to what you have learned about the Constitution. Are the Alien and Sedition Acts Constitutional? Why or why not?

29 Answer No, these acts are not constitutional. They violate freedom of speech and freedom of the press.

30 Domestic and Foreign Affairs Republicans saw the Alien and Sedition Acts as Federalist tyranny, and looked to the states to respond and protect people’s liberties Madison and Jefferson wrote statements of protest and passed the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 and 1799 These resolutions claimed that the Alien and Sedition Acts violated the Constitution, and declared that the states should not put them into action They further said that the states could nullify – legally overturn – federal laws they thought were unconstitutional

31 Domestic and Foreign Affairs The resolutions supported the principle of states’ rights, which held that the powers of the federal government were limited to those clearly granted by the Constitution To prevent the federal government from becoming too powerful, the states should have all other powers not expressly forbidden to them.

32 Domestic and Foreign Affairs Federalists urged Adams to declare war on France, but instead he worked out a treaty in 1800 in which the French agreed to stop their attacks on American ships

33 Wrap Up Even though George Washington did not like political parties, how was he partisan? What are caucuses? Who won the election of 1796? Explain the XYZ affair. Why is it called that? Why were the Alien and Sedition Acts formed? What resolution overturned them? Explain the principle of states’ rights


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