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Chapter 8 The Federalist Era (1789-1800) Section 3 The First Political Parties.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 The Federalist Era (1789-1800) Section 3 The First Political Parties."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 The Federalist Era ( ) Section 3 The First Political Parties

2 A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3-Polling QuestionSection 3-Polling Question What do you think is the most important principle of Jefferson’s Republican party? A.Strong emphasis on states’ rights B.Accessibility of politics to the average citizen C.Strict interpretation of the Constitution D.Protection of civil liberties

3 Essential QuestionEssential Question H o w d i d t h e F e d e r a l i s t a n d R e p u b l i c a n P a r t i e s f o r m, a n d o n w h a t i s s u e s d i d t h e y d i s a g r e e ?

4 Opposing Views Even President Washington was not liked by everyone Many of those were supporters of Thomas Jefferson Political Parties began to form People disagreed with each other, even in Washington’s cabinet (Hamilton and Jefferson) partisanEven Washington was partisan (Favored one side of an issue) Washington usually favored Hamilton

5 Political Parties Emerge Similar differences existed in Congress Two distinct political parties formed Federalists- supported the policies of Washington’s administration Democratic- Republicans (Republicans)

6 A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3Section 3 Which of the following was NOT a United States political party? A.Democrats B.Revisionists C.Republicans D.Federalists

7 Federalists Stood for a strong federal government Favored banking and shipping interests Support in the Northeast and wealthy plantation owners of the South Philip Freneau wrote the National Gazette that turned public opinion against the Federalist (Jefferson, Secretary of State, helped it get started) Jefferson and Madison later organized people who disagreed with Hamilton Were called the Democratic- Republicans

8 Democratic-Republicans “Republicans” wanted to limit the government’s power Feared a strong federal government would endanger people’s liberties Appealed to small farmers and urban workers Support in the Middle Atlantic states and the South

9 Views of the Constitution implied powersHamilton’s view (Fed.)- federal government had implied powers (Loose Construction) Powers not expressly forbidden in the constitution Hamilton used this idea to justify a national bank Jefferson and Madison (D-R)- disagreed and said there is a strict construction of the Constitution They believed implied powers are “absolutely necessary” to carry out the expressed powers

10 The People’s Role Federalists supported representative government Public office should be held by honest and educated men Ordinary people were too likely to be swayed Republicans feared a strong central government Washington tried to get his two advisors (Hamilton and Jefferson) to work out their differences They didn’t and Jefferson resigned as Secretary of State Later Hamilton resigned as Secretary of the Treasury

11 Election of 1796 Federalists and Republicans held meetings called caucuses Members of Congress and other leaders chose their parties’ candidates for office Federalists chose John Adams for President and Charles Pickney as VP Republicans chose Thomas Jefferson for President and Aaron Burr as VP The electoral college votes- Adams 71, Jefferson 68 A Federalist president and a Republican VP

12 President Adams Problems 1. The XYZ Affair 2. Alien and Sedition Acts 3. Domestic and Foreign Affairs

13 XYZ Affair The French started to seize American ships that carried cargo to the British resolveFall of Adams sent delegates to Paris to try to resolve the dispute The French foreign minister, Charles de Talleyrand refused to meet with the delegates Instead he sent three agents (X,Y, and Z) who demanded a bribe and a loan for France The Americans replied “not a sixpence” and sent a report to Adams Adams said he would rather pay for a war and told Congress to prepare for war This became known as the XYZ Affair

14 Alien and Sedition Acts aliensPublic anger rose against France, Americans became suspicious of aliens Immigrants living in the country who were not citizens Many Europeans who came to the US in the 1790s supported ideals of the French Revolution Some people questioned if aliens would remain loyal if the US went to war with France Federalists responded with strict laws to protect the nation’s security The Alien and Sedition ActsThe Alien and Sedition Acts Sedition-Sedition- Activities aimed at weakening the established government Alien Act allowed the president to imprison aliens, or send those considered dangerous out of the country

15 Domestic and Foreign Affairs Republicans responded to the Alien and Sedition Acts by standing up against what they regarded as Federalist tyranny Virginia and Kentucky ResolutionsMadison and Jefferson wrote protests that called the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Said that the A&S Acts violated the Constitution So the A&S Acts could not be put into action nullifyThe Kentucky Resolution suggested that states might nullify federal laws considered unconstitutional

16 A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3Section 3 Which of the following is true of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions? A.They were drafted by Federalists opposing Republican uses of federal power. B.They claimed that the Alien and Sedition Acts violated the constitution. C.They distributed land to settlers in Virginia and Kentucky. D.They rejected the principle of state’s rights.

17 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Supported the principle of states’ rights This states that the powers of the federal government should be limited to those clearly assigned in the Constitution States should have all other powers not expressly forbidden to them The issue of states’ rights would remain an important issue

18 Adams’ Decision To help them politically, Federalists urged Adams to declare war on France Adams didn’t, instead appointed a new commission to seek peace with France France agreed to a treaty This hurt Adams chance of reelection Hamilton and his supporters now opposed the president

19 Essential QuestionEssential Question H o w d i d t h e F e d e r a l i s t a n d R e p u b l i c a n P a r t i e s f o r m, a n d o n w h a t i s s u e s d i d t h e y d i s a g r e e ? F e d e r a l i s t s - S t r o n g f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t, l i m i t o r d i n a r y p e o p l e ’ s r o l e i n g o v e r n m e n t R e p u b l i c a n s - L i m i t f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t, p r o t e c t i n d i v i d u a l s ’ a n d s t a t e s ’ r i g h t s How did the Federalist and Republican Parties form, and on what issues did they disagree? Federalists- Strong federal government, limit ordinary people’s role in government Republicans- Limit federal government, protect individuals’ and states’ rights

20 Chapter 8 Section 3 Quiz

21 Which political party stood for a strong federal government? A.Federalist B.Antifederalist C.Democratic- Republican D.Democratic

22 Which party feared that a strong central government would endanger people's liberties? A.Federalist B.Antifederalist C.Republican D.Democratic

23 The second president of the United States was A.Thomas Jefferson. B.Aaron Burr. C.John Adams. D.Charles Pinckney.

24 Which of the following proposed a challenge to the constitutional authority of the national government? A.political parties B.peace with France C.Sedition Act D.Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

25 What divided the Federalists and hurt John Adams's chance for reelection? A.states' rights B.treaty with France C.Neutrality Act D.war with France

26 Participant Scores 0Participant 1 0Participant 2 0Participant 3 0Participant 4 0Participant 5

27 Team Scores 0Team 1 0Team 2 0Team 3 0Team 4 0Team 5

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