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The First Political Parties

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1 The First Political Parties
Chapter 8, Section 3 Notes

2 Opposing Views Although hailed as one of our countries greatest leaders, Washington did not escape criticism as president. From time to time, harsh attacks on his policies and personality appeared in newspapers. One paper even called Washington “the scourge and misfortune of his country”.

3 Opposing Views Most of attacks on Washington had come from supporters of Thomas Jefferson. They were attempting to discredit the policies of Hamilton and Washington by attacking Washington. By 1796, Americans were beginning to divide into political parties.

4 Opposing Views Most Americans considered political parties (PP) to be harmful. PP, or factions as they were called, were to be avoided as much as strong central governments. They were not even mentioned in the Constitution. Washington had warned that PP’s would divide the nation. Others thought it was only natural that people would disagree on issues and that they would band together.

5 Opposing Views In Washington’s cabinet, Jefferson and Hamilton often took opposing sides on issues. They disagreed on economic policy, foreign relations, the power of the federal government, and interpretations of the Constitution. Even GW had been partisan, favoring one side of an issue. He usually sided with Hamilton.

6 Poltical Parties Emerge
In Congress and the nation, similar differences existed. By the mid-1790’s, two distinct parties took shape. The name Federalist was originally someone who supported the new constitution. By 1790, the same word was being applied to people who supported GW’s policies.

7 Poltical Parties Emerge: FEDERALISTS
Federalists believed in the following: strong federal government Pro-British (stability), Anti-French (violence of the FR) favored banking and shipping interest Strong support in Northeast, especially New England, and among Southern plantation owners Implied powers in Constitution

8 Political Parties Emerge: Democratic-Republicans
By 1791, efforts to turn public opinion against Federalist policies began when Phillip Freneau began publishing the National Gazette. Jefferson, then Sec. of State, helped the newspaper get started. Later, TJ and James Madison organized people who disagreed with Hamilton. They called their party the Democratic- Republicans (or Republicans)

9 Democratic- Republicans
The Democratic- Republicans believed in: Limited power of the national government (pro-States) Pro-French Supported by small farmers and urban workers, especially in the Mid-Atlantic states and the South Strict interpretation of the Constitution

10 Federalists v. Republicans
The biggest fundamental difference between these two PP’s was the role ordinary people should play in government. Federalists= Public office should be held by honest, educated men of property who would protect everyone’s rights. Ordinary people were likely to be swayed by agitators.

11 Federalists v. Republicans
In contrast, Republicans feared a strong central government controlled by a few rich and powerful people. They believed that liberty would only be safe if ordinary people participated in government.

12 Washington’s Dilemma Washington tried to get TJ and AH to work out their differences. But neither were happy and both resigned their position before the end of GW’s second term.

13 Election of 1796 For the first time, candidates ran as members of PP’s. Both parties held caucuses to chose their parties’ candidates. The Federalists chose VP John Adams for Pres and Charles Pickney for VP candidates. The Republicans chose Thomas Jefferson for Pres and Aaron Burr for VP

14 The Election of 1796 Jefferson and Adams who once were good friends now became political rivals. In the end Adams received 71 electoral college votes to Jefferson’s 68. Under the provisions of the Constitution at the time, Adams became President and Jefferson Vice-President

15 President John Adams Resume: patriot, ambassador to Britain and France, negotiated Treaty of Paris (1783), two terms as VP

16 XYZ Affair When Adams took over as Pres. he inherited a dispute with France. The French regarded Jay’s Treaty as an attempt by America to help the British win the war against them. Adams wanted to avoid war with France so he sent a delegation to try to work out the problems with France.

17 XYZ Affair the French Foreign Minister, Charles de Talleyrand, refused to even meet with the American delegation. Instead, Talleyrand sent three agents (known as X,Y, and Z) who demanded a bribe and a loan for France. The delegation refused and sent a report of the incident to Adams. Adams was furious. the incident is known as “The XYZ Affair”

18 Undeclared War With France
Congress responded to the XYZ Affair, by establishing the Navy Department and set aside $$ for building warships and increasing the size of the Army. GW was appointed commanding general. Between 1798 and 1800, French and US naval vessels clashed on numerous occassions.

19 Undeclared War With France
War between the two countries was never formally declared. In the view of many Americans, France had become the enemy. As a result, many Republicans were voted out of office in the 1798 elections. In September 1800, Adams successfully negotiated a peace treaty with France.

20 Alien and Sedition Acts
The threat of war with France made Americans more suspicious of aliens (immigrants living in the country who were not citizens) Some Americans questioned whether these aliens would remain loyal to the US if we went to war with France.

21 Alien and Sedition Acts
Federalists responded with strict laws to protect the nation’s security. In 1798, they passed a group of measures known together as the Alien and Sedition Acts. Sedition refers to acts aimed at weakening the established government.

22 The Alien and Sedition Acts
Naturalization Act raised the length of time aliens needed to be residents of the US from 5 to 14 years. Alien Acts allowed the president to imprison aliens, or send those considered dangerous out of the country. Sedition Act made it a crime to speak, write or publish “false, scandalous, and malicious criticisms” of the government

23 The Alien and Sedition Acts
The Alien and Sedition Acts were passed by the Federalist controlled Congress because they wanted to: Strengthen the federal government silence Republican opposition Foreigners were discouraged from immigrating to the US, many left. 10 Republican newspaper editors were convicted of criticizing the gov’t.

24 Reaction to the Alien and Sedition Acts
Opposition to the Federalist Party grew Led to movement to allow states to overturn federal laws

25 Domestic and Foreign Affairs
The Republican fears that a strong central government would abuse its power seemed to becoming true. The Republicans looked to the states to stand up for people’s rights and against the tyranny of the federal gov’t TJ and JM drafted the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798, 1799).

26 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798, 1799)
spelled out a theory of states’ rights suggested that a state may overthrow a federal law it deems unconstitutional

27 Foreign Affairs- The War with France
As the election of 1800 approached, the Federalists found themselves under attack. They urged Adams to step up the war with France hoping that the war would unleash patriotic feelings. Adams refused to rush to war for his own political gains. Instead he sought peace.

28 Foreign Affairs- The War with France
In 1800, the French agreed to a treaty in which they agreed to stop attacking American ships. Although the treaty was in the best interest of the US, Adams’ chance for re-election were hurt. Instead of applauding the president, Federalist leaders (AH) now opposed their own president improving the chance of a D-R to win the election.

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