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The Federalist Era 1789-1800.

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Presentation on theme: "The Federalist Era 1789-1800."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Federalist Era

2 The First President Essential Question:
What were the precedents that Washington established as the first president of the United States?

3 The First President Predicting: How might the first leader of a new nation shape future leaders roles? Traditions Setting limits on powers Showing how duties will be performed

4 President Washington April 30, 1789 – George Washington took the oath of office as the first president of the United States John Adams is Vice President Washington knew that the precedents, or traditions he established would shape the future of the US



7 The First Congress Secretary of State Secretary of the Treasury
Thomas Jefferson Handled relations with other nations Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton Handled financial matters Cabinet Secretary of Treasury, State, Defense, Attorney General President has power to dismiss cabinet officers without senate approval

8 Judiciary Act of 1789 Congress established a federal court system
State laws remained but federal courts had the power to reverse state decisions Supreme Court would have final authority John Jay chosen as first chief justice of the Supreme Court

9 The New Country’s Economy
New Nation faced a huge national debt Amount of money owed by the United States government Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton wanted to improve the governments financial reputation

10 Hamilton’s Plan Pay millions of dollars in debt to other countries
Pay off debts to American citizens that had been borrowed through bonds Paper notes promising to repay money at a later date Hamilton faced much opposition Original bond owners felt betrayed Southern states were angry because they collected much less debt than northern states Compromise wins out States would be paid back Nation’s capital would be in the South National Bank was created

11 Tariffs and Taxes Hamilton called for a tariff to protect American industry from foreign competition The South opposed because they had little industry Hamilton called for national taxes to help pay off debt Tax on whiskey implemented

12 Precedents Established by Washington
Foreign policy of neutrality Creation of the cabinet Two terms in office The Inaugural Address

13 Early Challenges Essential Question:
What challenges did the US face during Washington’s administration?

14 The Whiskey Rebellion Growing resistance by Pennsylvania farmers to tax on whiskey 1794 – Armed mob attacked tax collectors and burned buildings Washington and his advisors decided to crush the rebellion with force Sends message that government will use force if necessary to keep the social order

15 The Whiskey Rebellion

16 Struggle Over the West Americans move onto Native American territory and fighting breaks out British in Ohio River Valley and encourage Native Americans to attack American settlers Some Americans want to form an alliance with France against Britain

17 Washington Proclaims Neutrality
The French tried to involve the US in a conflict with England Washington issued a Proclamation of Neutrality Prohibits Americans citizens from fighting in the conflict Barred British and French warships from American ports British were still impressing Americans which angered the US Conflict ended with Jay’s Treaty but did not address impressment

18 Treaty With Spain 1795 – Pinckney’s Treaty gave US access to Mississippi River and New Orleans Washington did not seek a third term 1797 Farewell Address Attacked political parties Advised US to stay out of foreign affairs

19 Making Connections How did the British challenge U.S. neutrality in the war between France and Great Britain? Answer the Essential Question: What challenges did the US face during Washington’s administration?

20 The First Political Parties
Essential Question: How did the Federalist and the Republican Parties form, and on what issues did they disagree?

21 Opposing Views By 1796, Americans began to take opposing sides on issues Washington’s cabinet members, Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton often disagreed Political Parties, often called “factions,” emerged

22 Republicans Vs. Federalists
1. Were led by Thomas Jefferson 2. Believed people should have political power 3. Favored strong state government 4. Emphasized agriculture 5. Favored strict interpretation of Constitution 6. Were pro-French 7. Opposed national bank 8. Opposed protective tariff

23 Republicans Vs. Federalists
1.Were led by Alexander Hamilton 2.Believed wealthy and educated should lead 3.Favored strong central government 4.Emphasized trade and manufacturing 5.Favored loose interpretation of Constitution 6.Were pro-British 7.Favored national bank 8.Favored protective tariff

24 Election of 1796 Candidates sought office for the first time as members of political parties Federalists and Republicans held caucuses Meeting where party members choose their parties’ candidate for office Federalist John Adams ran against Republican Thomas Jefferson Adams wins, Jefferson becomes Vice President

25 XYZ Affair French regarded the 1794 Jay’s Treaty as an American attempt to help Britain French began seizing American ships and impressing American people 1797 – Adams sent three diplomats to Paris to resolve the dispute French diplomats, known as X,Y and Z, demanded a bribe that America refused America was prepared for war but eventually the issue was resolved

26 Alien and Sedition Acts
Due to conflict with France, Americans became more suspicious of aliens Many supported the French Revolution Their loyalty was questioned Alien and Sedition Acts were passed (1798) Strict laws to protect the nation’s security President could imprison aliens or send them out of the country for speaking out against the government

27 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
James Madison and Jefferson said the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional Hoped states would nullify the acts Hurt Adam’s chances for reelection

28 Making Connections Using the diagram below, summarize each event and explain how it influenced the next one. Essential Question: How did the Federalist and the Republican Parties form, and on what issues did they disagree?

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