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Washington to Adams.

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1 Washington to Adams

2 Chapter 9: Big Ideas Precedents and legacy of Washington’s presidency
Challenges to the Early Republic – What challenges did they face and how did they overcome them?

3 Formation of Political Parties
Factions – opposing groups within parties Created in Washington’s Cabinet – WHY? Hamilton vs. Jefferson Different political views VS. Hamilton Jefferson

4 Different Political Views
Federalists Democratic Republicans Encourage manufacturing & trade – support the growth of cities Strong federal government Looser interpretation of Constitution Wanted closer ties with Britain Support farmers – “cultivators of the Earth” Weaker federal government – preserve state powers Strict interpretation of Constitution Favored alliance with France Economy Federal v. State Power Interpreting Constitution Foreign Affairs

5 Election of 1796 1st election after Washington
Adams (Fed)barely wins the election Jefferson elected VP (Dem-Rep)

6 John Adams’ Presidency
From Massachusetts Federalist Very different from Washington Short, pudgy Outspoken – stood up for his beliefs Honest and able leader

7 Conflict with France French objected to Jay’s Treaty – began to seize American ships Americans called for war! Adams sent diplomats to France XYZ Affair – French minister Talleyrand sent three agents to offer the Americans a deal – would not negotiate unless Talleyrand was paid $250,000 and France was given a $10 million loan Americans refused to pay a cent! WAR FEVER – Adams resisted How did he avoid war? Strengthened the American navy (built frigates to defend American ships)

8 Impact of the XYZ Affair
Many wanted to go to war with France – Hamilton Adams resisted war and lost support of many Federalists Federalist party split – weakened for the Election of 1800

9 Alien and Sedition Acts
Passed in 1798 by the Federalists During the crisis with France Alien Act – the President could expel an alien or foreigner thought to be dangerous to the country Made it more difficult for immigrants to become citizens Sedition Act – citizens could be fined or jailed for criticizing the government or its officials Are these laws constitutional? What about the 1st Amendment? Strongly opposed by the Republicans and Jefferson

10 Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
1798 and 1799 passed in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts Helped by Jefferson and Madison What did they say? Claimed each state “has an equal right to judge for itself” whether a law is constitutional If a state decides a law is unconstitutional it has the power to nullify the law within the state Raises a BIG issue States rights! Is this a power that the states have?


12 Election of 1800 Results Tie Jefferson (73 electoral votes) – Burr (73 electoral votes) House of Representatives decided the outcome – Jefferson wins! Strong influence from Hamilton – anti-Burr 12th Amendment – requires electors to vote separately for President and Vice President End of the Federalist Era Alexander Hamilton is killed by Aaron Burr in a duel (1804)

13 Ch. 9 Quest People Big Ideas – Can you list evidence?
Precedents and legacy of Washington’s presidency Challenges to the Early Republic – What challenges did they face and how did they overcome them? People George Washington Alexander Hamilton Thomas Jefferson John Adams Study terms and notes/worksheets

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