3Early Middle AgesThe Early Middle Age in Western Europe was referred to as a Dark Age, why? There was no definitive central government Constantinople—Roman Empire moved east in 330 A.D. Rome was no longer Roman. Nomadic German Tribes—They founded kingdoms in Italy, Gaul (France), Spain and Britain.
4Early Middle AgesNomadic German Tribal Society They had a rich oral tradition no books. They stressed tribal loyalty and bravery in battle.
5Early Middle AgesGerman Tribal Government Loyalty was given to the chieftain , there was no central government. The chieftain could divide up their lands and will them to their sons. During Roman times the main feature was a centralized government.
6Early Middle AgesGerman Tribal Government Accordingly, each tribe had its own laws, and customs which varied from tribe to tribe. However, Roman law was written down and applied to all citizens especially after 287 B.C. (remember tribal Assembly). Roman judges investigated evidence and demanded proof.
7German Tribal Government Early Middle AgesGerman Tribal GovernmentGerman law (Salic, Latin leges barbarorum) generally had three componentsCompurgation2. Trial by Ordeal3. Trial by Combat
8Early Middle AgesGerman Tribal Government Compurgation A person was required to swear an oath that he/she were innocent. Compurgators swore an oath of innocence, if guilty the compurgators suffered the same fate.
9Early Middle AgesGerman Tribal Government Trial by Ordeal Defendant was thrown into the river, if they sank=innocent float=guilty
10Early Middle AgesGerman Tribal Government Trial by Combat Plaintiff and defendant were allowed to choose people to represent them
11Early Middle AgesHow did European society change after the fall of the Roman Empire? Language
15Charlemagne’s coronation Early Middle AgesCharlemagne’s coronationAkg-prints.com Friedrich Kaulbach
16Charlemagne’s Coronation Early Middle AgesCharlemagne’s CoronationIssu.edu
17Charlemagne’s Capital at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) Early Middle AgesCharlemagne’s Capital at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle)Faculty.cua.edu
18Charlemagne’s Capital at Aachen Early Middle AgesCharlemagne’s Capital at AachenFaculty.cua.eduIhome.cuhk.edu.hkHist.umn.edu
19Early Middle Ages 500-800 Interior of Aachen Faculty.cua.edu Charlemagne began building his Palatine Chapel (palace chapel) in 786 AD.The Palatine Chapel was designed by Odo of Metz. He based it on the Byzantine church of San Vitale (completed 547 AD) in Ravenna, Italy. This accounts for the very eastern feel to the chapel, with its octagonal shape, striped arches, marble floor, golden mosaics, and ambulatory. It was consecrated in 805 to serve as the imperial church.When Charlemagne died in 814, he was buried in the chapel's choir.In 1168, Barbarossa provided a bronze chandelier to hang over the shrine, which still remains today.Faculty.cua.edu
25Middle Ages 800-1200 Treaty of Verdun 843 Louis the Pious (r ) Charlemagne’s son followed the Germanic tradition of dividing up the empire (gavelkind). They split the empire between his three sons.Lothair I the eldest son of Louis the Pious received eastern France, northern Italy.Charles the Bald received western France andLouis the German received Germany and AustriaThis only further weakened the empire and made it vulnerable to attack.
26Middle Ages 800-1200 “Holy” [Roman] Empire? Henry I ruled from 918 to 935 and was the first of a line of Saxon kings that governed till 1024.Otto I the Great ( ) was the most important of the Saxon kings in that he decisively defeated the Magyars in 955 at the Battle of Lechfield.Otto extended his influence into northern Italy and came to Rome in 962 where he was crowned Emperor by Pope John XII ( ). He was granted the title which Charlemagne and the Carolingian rulers had held but which had fallen into disuse after 925.Since he was crowned emperor in Rome by the pope, the name Holy Roman Empire was applied to the realms which he ruled.Many date the Holy Roman Empire from this coronation in 962.
27Middle AgesCritics have pointed out that this kingdom certainly was not holy, was not Roman (it was essentially a German kingdom), and was not an empire (it was a collection of tribal duchies barely held together by the king and, now, emperor).
28Middle AgesLay Investiture What is it? The appointment of bishops and other church officials by feudal lords.
29Middle Ages 800-1200 Lay Investiture The Investiture Ceremony made the priest’s appointment official. Some of the items for the ceremony are listed below:Signet RingCrozierGlebePallium
30Middle AgesSignet Ring Represents his (bishop’s, archbishop’s) authority to act legally for his territory (diocese/archdiocese).TheRomans.co.uk
31Middle AgesCrozier A staff similar to a shepherd’s crook. It signified his spiritual leadership of the people in the diocese.Churchsupplies.com
32Middle AgesGlebe A lump of dirt. It symbolized his possession and ownership of the land.Sprinklerwarehouse.com
33Middle AgesPallium A white stole to hang around his neck. It indicated that he was in a long line of spiritual teaching and leadership.Newliturgicalmovement.org
34Middle AgesMonarch’s Perspective The monarchs protected the lands owned by the church. So, they believed they had a right to install church officials. Laymen took part in the ceremony to invest the candidate with some or all the insignia of his office.
35Middle AgesEmperor Henry III ( ) believed that his authority extended to the pope as well. Henry IV ( ) also believed that he could involve himself in the church of his nation. Pope Gregory VII ( ) issued the Papal Election Decree—only cardinals could elect the pope and the pope could elect cardinals, banned lay investiture in Result Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV and deposes him.
36Middle AgesHenry IV travels to meet Pope Gregory to reconcile in Rudolf of Swabia takes his place for three years. By 1080, Pope Gregory declares Rudolf of Swabia the rightful king. Rudolf dies, Henry regains his thrown and deposes Pope Gregory in 1084 and selects a new pope. Finally, How is this feud settled?
38Middle Ages 800-1200 No, not Gummy Worms! But it is pronounced Voorms, Henry V (r ) and Pope Calixtus II (r ) came to a concordat or formal written agreement which stated:Henry V would give up lay investiture andThe emperor could bestow symbols of territorial and administrative jurisdiction
39Middle AgesFeudalism and Manorialism The Treaty of Verdun and the concept of gavelkind had a deep affect upon life in Europe. Feudalism was primarily between and among the aristocracy. So, what was it?
40Middle AgesQuid Pro Quo Something given for something gained It was a system of government which involved mutual obligations between a lord and a vassal. Why was it happening? The Holy Roman Empire could neither exercise authority nor provide protection.
41Middle Ages 800-1200 How did it work? lord vassal supplied him with a section of land for temporary uselord vassalThe vassal swore an oath of fealty and aid to him in time of war
42Middle Ages 800-1200 Who could become a knight? A lord’s son at the age of7 years—he became a page, a servant to run errands14 years—he became a squire. A personal servant to a veteran knight21 years he became a knight.
43Middle AgesManorialism or The Manor System What is it? It is an economic relationship between nobility and the peasantry
44Middle Ages 800-1200 How did it work? landowner serf provided military protection and justice for his tenantslandowner serflandowner granted the serf land (tenures) for tithes on crops
45Middle Ages 800-1200 SERF The Manor System Not Chattel, no one owned him or herAble to accumulate personal wealthCould not leave without permissionSERFPortion of harvest went to lordHad to perform labor and services on demand
47Middle AgesCrusades 1096—1291 Quasi-military expeditions designed to free the Holy Land from the control of Muslim influences. Seljuk Turks seized the Holy Land between 1085 and 1095 which prevented Christian pilgrims from going to Jerusalem Christians pilgrims massacred.
48Middle AgesByzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus asks Pope Urban II for help in defeating the Turks. Pope Urban’s objectives were to : --Restore Christian control of the Holy Land --Redirect aggression of the lords and nobility and --Reunite eastern and western churches.
49Middle AgesFirst Crusade—1096 People’s Crusade mostly peasants The peasants followed a group of knights. Freed Jerusalem in July 1099
50Middle AgesSecond Crusade Religious orders of knighthood --King Louis VII French emperor and Conrad III of Germany invade Asia Minor and attack Damascus
51Middle AgesThird Crusade Turkish general Saladin re-conquers Jerusalem. --Richard-the-Lion-Hearted battles Saladin --Christians allowed to enter Jerusalem freely
52Middle AgesChildren’s Crusade Children from France and Germany --Many died of hunger, cold and disease
53Middle AgesConsequences of the Crusades Many had a hope of gaining riches but it increased cultural diffusion between Christians and Muslims. “Successful Failures”