Lords & Vassals lord responsible for granting the fief providing leadership providing justice providing protection against other powers
Vassal’s duties: homage: formal act of submission to lord. fealty: sworn pledge of loyalty to uphold interests of lord.
suit to court: requirement to convene at lord's residence to conduct business and to decide military, judicial and political matters. military service aids: material or financial assistance due to lord when required at certain times. These were not regular taxes.
Medieval Church Institution that survived imperial collapse Hierarchical – pope------- Growth in power - took on characteristics of a government: –Laws - canon –Taxes - tithe –courts - –All under pope (growing power)
Conflicts between growing power of kings & growing power of church Church Courts & clerical immunity –Henry II vs. Pope -- England – Thomas Becket Lay investiture –Henry IV vs. Pope -- HRE – going to Canova
Secular clergy – dealt with the outside world Pope – cardinals – archbishop – bishop Priests Monasticism – purpose? Regular clergy – secluded; lived “regulated” life - monks & nuns Benedictine rule: poverty, chastity & obedience
Germanic tribes try to create order Franks - –Clovis unifies the Frankish tribes –Clovis adopts Christianity –Charles Martel - halts Muslim advance in France (Battle of Tours) – Charles the Great - Charlemagne Introduces a feudal structure;
Angles & Saxons –Invade Roman Britain –Small principalities/ kingdoms –Attacks by Vikings (Danes) –Alfred the Great Becomes “high King” to defeat the Danes
More unified kingdoms emerge 10 th c. Otto the Great – Holy Roman Empire Hugh Capet – France 11 th c. William of Normandy – 1066 England; Impact? Significance?