Presentation on theme: "The Middle Ages SOL WHI.9 The gradual decline of the Roman Empire ushered in an era of European history called the Middle Ages or Medieval Period. It spanned."— Presentation transcript:
1 The Middle AgesSOL WHI.9The gradual decline of the Roman Empire ushered in an era of European history called the Middle Ages or Medieval Period.It spanned from around 500 to 1500.
2 Europe in Middle Ages Roman Empire 476 A.D. Western Roman Empire collapses due to Germanic invasions.500 – 1500 A.D. Period of history known as the MIDDLE AGES.Europe in Middle AgesSmall Germanic kingdoms; boundaries constantly changedMoney scarce; trade disrupted by invasions; cities faded; illiterate societyPeople entered into agreements with land owning lords who provided them with protection in exchange for work.Roman EmpireLarge territory unified under one governmentLed by an emperorLarge cities, money economy, literate society, etc.
3 Foundations of medieval society Classical heritage of RomeChristian beliefsCustoms of Germanic tribesFeudalism beginsInvasions shattered Roman protection over the Empire. The decline of Roman influence in Western Europe left people with little protection against invasion, so they entered into feudal agreements with land-holding lords who promised them protection.By the end of the 5th century invaders from many different Germanic groups overran the western half of the Roman Empire. Repeated invasions and constant warfare sparked new trends.Disruption of trade: merchants faced invasions/businesses collapsed/breakdown of trade destroyed European cities/money became scarceDownfall of cities: with the fall of the Roman Empire cities were abandoned as centers of administrationPopulation shifts: As Roman centers of trade and govt collapsed, nobles retreated to the rural areas/cities left without strong leadership/other city-dwellers also fled to the countryside where they grew their own food/population of western Europe became mostly rural.Germanic tribes—could not read or write/as German-speaking peoples mixed with the Roman population Latin began to change/by the 800s French, Spanish, and other Roman-based languages had evolved from LatinBetween AD, small Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provinces/borders changed constantly due to warThe Roman Catholic Church survived the fall of the Empire/provided order and securityAlong with shifting boundaries, the entire concept of govt changed. Loyalty to the public govt and written law had unified Roman society. Family ties and personal loyalty, rather than citizenship in a public state, bound Germanic society together/lived in small communities/governed by unwritten rules and traditions.Every Germanic chief led a band of warriors who had pledged their loyalty him…the chief provided food, weapons, treasure…men fought to death at their lord’s side.
4 Feudal society during the Middle Ages Fief – land worked by the peasantsVassals – “landlords”; swore allegiance tothe king; could serve as a knightSerfs – peasants that worked the landFeudal obligationsManorial system during the Middle AgesFacts: A.D.In Western Europe 90% of the population were peasantsMost lived in little more than huts on the Lord’s estateProbably traveled no more than 25 miles from home in their lifetimeRigid class structureSelf-sufficient manors
5 Feudalism Based on mutual obligation Provide knights in times of war Fiefs – land grantsMilitary protectionFiefs – land grantsserviceprotectionBased on mutual obligation
9 Influence of the Roman Catholic Church during the Middle Ages The Roman Catholic Church grew in importanceafter Roman authority declined. It became theunifying force in western Europe.The Pope anointed the Holy Roman Emperors.Missionaries carried Christianity to Germanic tribes.The Church served the social, political, and religiousneeds of the people.Franks held power in Gaul/Clovis (Frankish leader) converted to Christianity in 496/marks the beginning of a partnership b/t Franks and ChurchMissionaries often risked their lives to spread their beliefsThe Church built religious communities called monasteries to adapt to rural conditions/Christian men called monks lived there/gave up all private possessions/Nuns lived in convents/devoted their lives to prayer and good works/became Europe’s best educated communities/monks opened schools, maintained libraries, and copied books.Pope Gregory I (the Great) expanded the papacy in 590 to become a political power as well/pope’s palace became the center of Roman government/used Church revenues to raise armies, repair roads, help the poor/Christendom…churchly kingdom, ruled by a pope, would become a central theme for the Middle Ages
10 St. Peter’s Basilica Vatican City, Italy Vatican City = now an independent nation; inside the city of Rome; smallest country in the world; Pope is the rulerSt. Peter’s Basilica = has the largest interior of any Christian church in the world, holds 60,00 people; In Catholic tradition it is the burial site of St. Peter (one of the twelve apostles of Jesus); many Popes have been buried there; has been a church here since the 4th century; current basilica was began on April 18, 1506 and completed on November 18, 1626Built 326 A. D.
11 Influence of the Church Roman authority declined, while Churchauthority grewMonasteries preserved Greco-Roman culturalachievementsMissionaries carried Christianity and Latin alphabetto Germanic tribesPope anointed Charlemagne as Holy RomanEmperor in 800 A. D.Parish priests served religious and social needs ofthe people
12 Frankish kings used military power to expand their territory. Age of CharlemagneFrankish kings used military power to expand their territory.Franks emerged as a force in Western EuropeCharles I, Charles the Great = CharlemagnePope crowned the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.The alliance between Frankish kings and the church reestablished Roman culture in Western Europe.Power of the Church was established in political lifeRoman culture was revivedCharles Martel—most powerful individual in the Frankish kingdom/defeats Muslim invaders at the Battle of Tours in 732Pepin—wanted to become king/agreed to fight the Lombards who were a threat to Rome/Pope anointed him King/begins Carolingian DynastyCharlemagne—conquered new territory to the south and east/spread Christianity through conquests/in 800 he traveled to Rome to crush an unruly mob that had attacked the pope/in gratitude, Pope Leo III crowned him emperor of the Holy Roman Empire/***Pope had claimed the political right to confer the title “Roman Emperor” on a European king/this event signaled the joining of Germanic power, the Church, and the heritage of the Roman Empire.
13 Charlemagne Born grandson of Charles Martel, son of Pepin the Short Ruled from A.D.Known as Charles ISpread Christianity while reuniting western EuropeCrowned by Pope Leo III Christmas Day 800 A. D.Died at age 70
14 Charlemagne’s EmpireDivided into three sections by his grandsons (Treaty of Verdun) /Carolingian power collapsed (843).Map on pages , 321, 323, 334
15 Invasions by the Angles, Saxons, Magyars, & Vikings
16 Invasions by the Angles, Saxons, Magyars, & Vikings Invasions by Angles, Saxons, Magyars, and Vikings disrupted the social, economic, and political order of Europe.Areas of SettlementAngles and Saxons from continental Europe to EnglandMagyars from Central Asia to HungaryVikings from Scandinavia to Russia
17 Influence of the Angles, Saxons, Magyars, & Vikings Manors with castles provided protection from invadersInvasions disrupted trade, towns declined, and thefeudal system was strengthened