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Ex. 11 & 13 The Appendicular Skeleton, Articulations and Movement.

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Presentation on theme: "Ex. 11 & 13 The Appendicular Skeleton, Articulations and Movement."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ex. 11 & 13 The Appendicular Skeleton, Articulations and Movement

2 Important figures & quiz knowledge All figures and tables are important to know & understand Don’t forget: next week is the practical exam – Practical review: Friday, 10/2 SC PM 3 classes overlapping (I will be going back and forth)

3 Appendicular skeleton: 126 bones 64 bones in upper limbs and pectoral girdle – Shoulder girdle functional aspects Attachment of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton Attachment points for many trunk and neck muscles – Clavicle/ collarbone – sternal end attaches to sternal manubrium. (Figure 11.2, p147) – Acromial end - articulates with scapula & holds arm away from the top of the thorax – Scapulae/ shoulder blades – have no directs attachment to the axial skeleton but is loosely held in place by the trunk muscles. (Figure 11.2, p147) Spine - deltoid muscle attachment Acromion process – connects with the clavicle Coracoid process – serves as attachment point for some of the upper limb muscles Glenoid cavity – a shallow socket that receives the head of the arm bone – humerus – The Arm Humerus – long bone. (Figure 11.3, p148) – Head – fits into the shallow glenoid cavity of the scapula – Greater and lesser tubercles - attachemnt for biceps muscles – The Forearm (Figure 11.4, page 149) Radius - lateral bone of the forearm Ulna - medial bone of the forearm – Radial notch – articulates with the head of the radius – The Hand – manus (Figure 11.5, page 150) Three groups of bones: – Carpus – wrist. 8 carpal bones – Metacarpals – palm: numbered 1 to 5 from the thumb. – Phalanges – fingers: numbered 1 to 5 from the thumb » 14 bones » Each finger contains three phalanges except for the thumb which has only two







10 Appendicular skeleton: 126 bones 62 bones in lower limbs and pelvic girdle – The Pelvic (Hip) Girdle (Figure 11.6, pages 151-2) Formed by two coxal bones (2 fused bones) – Bones are heavy and massive, and attach securely to the axial skeleton – Sockets for the heads of the femurs (thigh bones) are deep and heavily reinforced by ligaments to ensure a stable, strong attachment – Ability to bear weight is more important than mobility and flexibility – Combined weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis – Each coxal bone is a result of the fusion of three bones: » Ilium – large flaring bone » Ischium – “sit – down” bone » Pubis - anterior poertion of the coxal bone » All three bones fuse at the deep hemispherical socket – acetabulum, which receives the head of the thigh bone Comparison of the Male and Female Pelves (Table 11.1, page 153) – Bones of males: usually larger, heavier, and have more prominent bone markings – Female pelvis reflects modifications for childbearing » Wider, shallower, lighter, and rounder – The Leg (Figure 11.8, page 155) Tibia - larger & medial bone Fibula - parallel to the tibia – The Foot (Figure 11.9, page 156) 7 tarsal bones, 5 metatarsals (instep), 14 phalanges (toes) – Body weight is concentrated on two largest tarsals – Calcaneus - heel bone – Talus – b/n tibia and calcaneus Each toe has three phalanges except the great toe, which has two The Arches The foot has two important functions: weight bearing and propulsion. These functions require a high degree of stability and flexibility – The foot has three arches » Medial longitudinal arch is the highest and most important of the three arches. It is composed of the calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuneiforms, and the first three metatarsals » Lateral longitudinal arch is lower and flatter than the medial arch. It is composed of the calcaneus, cuboid, and the fourth and fifth metatarsal » Transverse arch is composed of the cuneiforms, the cuboid, and the five metatarsal bases – Arches are maintained by the shapes of the bones as well as by ligaments and tendons








18 Articulations Articulations – joints, bone – bone contact – Function: Hold bones together Allow flexibility so that body movements can occur – Functional classification (based on amount of movement) (p. 170, Fig 13.1) Synarthroses – immovable joints, ex.: sutures in the axial skeleton Amphiarthroses – slightly movable joints, ex.: vertebral disc, in the axial skeleton Diarthroses – freely movable joints, ex.: synovial joints in the limbs

19 Structural classifications (based connective tissue type Fibrous joint – joined by fibrous c.t., little or no movement – Suture – edges of bone interlock (ex.: skull) – Syndesmoses – bones connected by short ligaments (ex.: between distal ends of tibia and fibula) Cartilaginous joint – articulating bone ends joined by cartilage plate or pad, slightly movable – Symphysis – fibrocartilage (ex.: pubic symphysis) – Synchondrosis – hyaline cartilage (ex.: epiphyseal plate) Synovial joint – joined by joint cavity containing synovial fluid, freely movable (p. 171, Fig 13.2)


21 Subclassifications of synovial joints Based on # of axes, joint shape, & allowable motion type Classification of synovial joints by shape of joint, and type of motion allowed (p.172; 13.3): – Plane/gliding joint: the wrist Bone surfaces slide across each other, allowing a wide range of movements – Hinge joint: elbow and ankles Allow for flexion and extension – Pivot joint: the skull on its spinal axis Movement is limited to rotation – Condyloid/ Ellipsoid joint: structurally similar to a ball and socket joint but without rotation – Saddle joint: the thumb Bone surfaces are concave, allowing movement in all direction but only limited rotation – Ball and Socket joint: the rounded head of one bone fits into a socket-like cavity of another, such as the hip and shoulder joints Allow free rotation Classification of synovial joints by the number of axes – Nonaxial joint - movement tends to be linear rather than angular Joint surfaces flat and glide over one another instead of around – ex.: carpal bones – Uniaxial joint - movement in one plane around one axis Move like a door hinge ex.: elbow joint and interphalangeal joints of hand and foot Pivot joint - bone pivots around another bone – ex.: radius pivots around stationary ulnar, also atlantoaxial joint C1 (atlas) pivots around stationary C2(axis) on the odontoid process – Biaxial joint - motion occurs in two different axis in two planes Condyloid (ellipsoidal) –metacarpophalangeal joints of fingers or toes Saddle – carpometacarpal joints at thumb – Triaxial/ multiaxial joint - motion in all three axes ex.: ball and socket - hip and shoulder More motion than any other type of joint



24 Movements of synovial joints Flexion – Sagittal plane – Decreases joint angle & distance betw. articulated bones Extension – Opp. flexion – Increases joint angle & distance betw. bones Abduction – Frontal plane – Movement of limb away from midline or median plane Adduction – Opp. abduction – Movement toward midline or median plane Rotation – Movement of bone around its own logitudinal axis w/o lateral or medial displacement Circumduction: combination of previously listed movements (except rotation) Pronation: movement of palm from anterior or superior position to a posterior or inferior position Supination: opp. of pronation Inversion: medial turning of sole of foot Eversion: opp. of inversion Dorsiflextion: movement of ankle joint dorsally Plantar flexion: movement of ankle joint ventrally

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