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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition Elaine N. Marieb PowerPoint ® Lecture.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition Elaine N. Marieb PowerPoint ® Lecture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition Elaine N. Marieb PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Vince Austin, University of Kentucky 8 Joints

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Joints (Articulations)  Weakest parts of the skeleton  Articulation – site where two or more bones meet  Functions of joints  Give the skeleton mobility  Hold the skeleton together

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Classification of Joints: Structural  Structural classification focuses on the material binding bones together and whether or not a joint cavity is present  The three structural classifications are:  Fibrous  Cartilaginous  Synovial

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fibrous Structural Joints  The bones are joined by fibrous tissues  There is no joint cavity  Most are immovable  There are three types – sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fibrous Structural Joints: Sutures  Occur between the bones of the skull  Comprised of interlocking junctions completely filled with connective tissue fibers  Bind bones tightly together, but allow for growth during youth

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fibrous Structural Joints: Sutures Figure 8.1a

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fibrous Structural Joints: Syndesmoses  Bones are connected by a fibrous tissue ligament  Movement varies from immovable to slightly variable  Examples include the connection between the tibia and fibula, and the radius and ulna

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fibrous Structural Joints: Syndesmoses Figure 8.1b

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fibrous Structural Joints: Gomphoses  The peg-in-socket fibrous joint between a tooth and its alveolar socket  The fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cartilaginous Joints  Articulating bones are united by cartilage  Lack a joint cavity  Two types – synchondroses and symphyses

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondroses  A bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones  All synchondroses are synarthrotic  Examples include:  Epiphyseal plates of children  Joint between the costal cartilage of the first rib and the sternum

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondroses Figure 8.2a, b

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cartilaginous Joints: Symphyses  Hyaline cartilage covers the articulating surface of the bone and is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage  Amphiarthrotic joints designed for strength and flexibility  Examples include intervertebral joints and the pubic symphysis of the pelvis

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cartilaginous Joints: Symphyses Figure 8.2c

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints  Those joints in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity  All are freely movable diarthroses  Examples – all limb joints, and most joints of the body

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: General Structure  Synovial joints all have the following  Articular cartilage  Joint (synovial) cavity  Articular capsule  Synovial fluid  Reinforcing ligaments

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: General Structure Figure 8.3a, b

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: Friction-Reducing Structures  Bursae – flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing synovial fluid  Common where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together  Tendon sheath – elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: Movement  The two muscle attachments across a joint are:  Origin – attachment to the immovable bone  Insertion – attachment to the movable bone  Described as movement along transverse, frontal, or sagittal planes

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: Range of Motion  Nonaxial – slipping movements only  Uniaxial – movement in one plane  Biaxial – movement in two planes  Multiaxial – movement in or around all three planes

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Synovial Joints  Plane joints  Articular surfaces are essentially flat  Allow only slipping or gliding movements  Only examples of nonaxial joints Figure 8.7a

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Synovial Joints  Hinge joints  Cylindrical projections of one bone fits into a trough-shaped surface on another  Motion is along a single plane  Uniaxial joints permit flexion and extension only  Examples: elbow and interphalangeal joints

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Synovial Joints Figure 8.7b

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pivot Joints  Rounded end of one bone protrudes into a “sleeve,” or ring, composed of bone (and possibly ligaments) of another  Only uniaxial movement allowed  Examples: joint between the axis and the dens, and the proximal radioulnar joint

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pivot Joints Figure 8.7c

26 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Condyloid, or Ellipsoidal, Joints  Oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression in another  Both articular surfaces are oval  Biaxial joints permit all angular motions  Examples: radiocarpal (wrist) joints, and metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints

27 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Condyloid, or Ellipsoidal, Joints Figure 8.7d

28 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Saddle Joints  Similar to condyloid joints but allow greater movement  Each articular surface has both a concave and a convex surface  Example: carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

29 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Saddle Joints Figure 8.7e

30 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ball-and-Socket Joints  A spherical or hemispherical head of one bone articulates with a cuplike socket of another  Multiaxial joints permit the most freely moving synovial joints  Examples: shoulder and hip joints

31 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ball-and-Socket Joints Figure 8.7f

32 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gliding Movements  One flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface  Examples – intercarpal and intertarsal joints, and between the flat articular processes of the vertebrae

33 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Angular Movement  Flexion — bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint  Extension — reverse of flexion; joint angle is increased  Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion — up and down movement of the foot  Abduction — movement away from the midline  Adduction — movement toward the midline  Circumduction — movement describes a cone in space

34 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gliding Movement Figure 8.5a

35 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Angular Movement Figure 8.5b

36 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Angular Movement Figure 8.5c, d

37 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Angular Movement Figure 8.5e, f

38 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Rotation  The turning of a bone around its own long axis  Examples  Between first two vertebrae  Hip and shoulder joints Figure 8.5g

39 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements  Supination and pronation  Inversion and eversion  Protraction and retraction  Elevation and depression

40 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements Figure 8.6a

41 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements Figure 8.6b

42 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements Figure 8.6c

43 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements Figure 8.6d


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