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The Appendicular Skeleton Honors A&P. The Clavicle.

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Presentation on theme: "The Appendicular Skeleton Honors A&P. The Clavicle."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Appendicular Skeleton Honors A&P

2 The Clavicle

3 The Pectoral Girdle

4 ID your view 1. Anterior 2. Posterior

5 ID the Acromion

6 ID the Infraspinous Fossa

7 ID the acromial end of the clavicle

8 Upper Limbs

9 Bones of Hand and Wrist

10 ID the psiform

11 ID the trapezoid

12 ID the deltoid tuberosity

13 ID the greater tubercle

14 ID the trochlea

15 ID the radial tuberosity

16 ID the ulnar styloid process

17 The Pelvic Girdle

18 Anatomical Comparison of Male and Female Pelvis

19 The Lower Limbs

20 Bones of Foot and Ankle

21 Is this a male or female pelvis? 1. Male 2. Female 3. Cannot be determined

22 ID the acetabulum. ID the acetabulum

23 ID the iliac crest. ID the iliac crest

24 ID the ischial spine ID the ischial spine

25 Id the cuboid tarsal. 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D 5. E 6. F 7. G

26 Id the navicular tarsal. 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D 5. E 6. F 7. G

27 ID the lateral malleolus

28 Do Now: How do a male and female pelvis compare? List 3 joints and describe their movements.

29 Articulations: site where 2+ bones meet (joint) providing mobility and stability

30 Classification of Articulations Structure (material binding bones) ◦ Fibrous (binding connective tissue) ◦ Cartilaginous (binding connective tissue) ◦ Synovial (joint capsule) Function (amount of movement) ◦ Synarthrosis (Immovable) -axial ◦ Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable)-axial ◦ Diarthrosis (freely movable)-appendicular

31 Synathrosis (no movement) Sutures (seams) - fibrous ◦ Bones of the skull Gomphosis ◦ Peridontal ligament bonds tooth w/in alveolar margin Cartilaginous ◦ Synchondrosis – hyaline cartilage unites bones  Ex. Connection between 1 st rib and manubrium of sternum, epiphyseal plates

32 Amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable) Syndesmosis ◦ Fibrous joint connected by ligament ◦ Ex. Distal articulation between tibia and fibula, interosseous membrane connecting radius and ulna Symphysis ◦ Bones joined by disk of fibrocartilage ◦ Ex. Vertebrae, between pubic bones

33 Diarthrosis (Synovial Movement) Bound by joint capsule and contains synovial fluid Structure ◦ Articular Cartilage – hyaline ◦ Joint Cavity – space w/fluid ◦ Articular Capsule – fibrous layer & synovial membrane ◦ Synovial Fluid – slippery & viscous lubricant ◦ Reinforcing ligaments – strengthen joints ◦ Nerves and bv – rich supply ◦ Bursae – “ball bearing” or bag of lubricant ◦ Tendon sheath – elongated bursae ◦ Menisci – between interlocking bones of the knee and jaw

34 Stability of Joint Stabilized to prevent dislocation Articular Surface ◦ Shape – ball and socket of hip is most stable Ligaments ◦ More ligaments increase strength but limit motion ◦ Can only stretch 6% of length Muscle Tone ◦ Tendons are most important stabilizing factor ◦ Kept taut by muscle tone

35 Range of Motion Non-axial ◦ Slipping movements Uniaxial ◦ One plane Biaxial ◦ 2 planes Multiaxial more than 2 planes

36 Angular Movements ◦ Angular Motion  Flexion – reduces angle between articulating elements  Extension - increases angle between articulating elements  Adduction – moving towards midline  Abduction – moving away from midline  Circumduction – loop motion

37 Rotational Movements Rotational

38 Special Movements ◦ Inversion- turns sole of foot inward (opp-eversion) ◦ Dorsiflexion- ankle flexion (plantar flexion pointed toe) ◦ Opposition – grasping (thumb/fingers toward hand) ◦ Protraction - move anterior across horizontal plane (opp retraction) ◦ Elevation – move superior (opp depression)

39 Structural Classification of Synovial Joints Gliding – flat surfaces slide past one another ◦ Ends of clavicles ◦ Between carpals & tarsals ◦ Between vertebrae Hinge – angular movement in a single direction ◦ Occipital bone and atlas ◦ Elbow, knee, ankle ◦ Interphalangeal joints Pivot – permit rotation only ◦ Atlas and axis ◦ Proximal radius and ulna Ellipsodial – angular motion occurs in 2 planes ◦ Radius w/proximal carpals ◦ Phalanges w/metacarpals (and metatarsals) Saddle- permits angular motion but prevents rotation ◦ thumb Ball and socket - round head rests within depression ◦ Shoulder ◦ hips

40 The Shoulder

41 The Elbow

42 The Hip

43 The Knee: Largest and most complex joint

44 Organ System Integratio n

45 Which of the following does NOT influence the stability of the joint? 1. Shape of articular surface 2. Presence of strong reinforcing ligaments 3. Tone of surrounding muscles 4. Presence of synovial fluid

46 Freely movable joints are 1. Synarthrosis 2. Diarthrosis 3. Amphiarthrosis

47 Abduction and Adduction always refer to movements of the 1. Axial skeleton 2. Appendicular skeleton 3. Skull 4. Vertebral column

48 Standing on tip toe is an example of 1. Elevation 2. Plantar flexion 3. Dorsiflexion 4. Retraction

49 Joints that connect the fingers to metacarpals are 1. Ellipsoidal joints 2. Pivot joints 3. Saddle joints 4. Hinge Joints

50 Subacromial, subcoracoid, and subscapular bursae reduce friction in 1. Hip 2. Elbow 3. Knee 4. Shoulder


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