6Fibrous Two bones joined by fibrous tissue. Little or no movement SuturesSyndesmosesGomphoses
7suturesBetween skull bones“soft spot” in infants. Fontanels
8SyndesmosesBones separated by some distance and held together by ligaments.Distal part of radius and ulna
9Gomphoses Like pegs fitted into a socket. Held in place by ligaments Tooth in socket
10Cartilaginous joints Hold two bones together using cartilage. Slight movementEpiphyseal plates intervertebral disks
11Synovial Joints Freely movable joints Contain synovial fluid in the cavityThis type of joint is found often in the appendicular skeleton.
12Parts of a Synovial Joint Articular cartilageJoint cavityJoint capsuleSynovial membraneBursaTendon sheath
13Types of Synovial Joints Based on the shape of articulating surfacesPlane (gliding)SaddleHingePivotBall-and SocketEllipsoid
14Types of movement Flexion – moves a body part anterior or ventral Extension – moves a body part posterior or dorsal
15Types of movement cont. Abduction – movement away from the midline Adduction – movement toward the midline
16Types of movement cont. With the elbow at 90 degrees: Pronation – rotation so that palm is facing downSupination – rotation so that palm is facing up.
17Types of movement cont.Eversion – rotation of foot so that plantar surface is lateralInversion – rotation of foot so that plantar surface is medial
18Types of movement cont.Rotation – turning a structure around its long axis.Example – shaking your head no.Example – with your arm flexed, with medial rotation, arm touches the abdomen. With lateral rotation, arm moves away from the body.
19Types of movement cont. Protraction – structure glides anteriorly Retraction – structure glides posteriorlyExample - mandible
20Types of movement cont. Elevation – movement in a superior direction Depression – movement in an inferior directionExample - mandible
21Types of movement cont.Excursion – movement of a structure from one side to the other.Example - mandible
22Types of movement cont.Opposition – unique to the thumb. This movement is described as bringing the thumb and little finger (or other fingers) together across the palm.Reposition – returns digits to anatomical position
23Types of movement cont.Circumduction – only occurs at freely movable joints.Example – movement of the arm so that it swings in a circle with the shoulder forming the apex of a cone.