Fibrous Two bones joined by fibrous tissue. Little or no movement Sutures Syndesmoses Gomphoses
sutures Between skull bones “soft spot” in infants. Fontanels
Syndesmoses Bones separated by some distance and held together by ligaments. Distal part of radius and ulna
Gomphoses Like pegs fitted into a socket. Held in place by ligaments Tooth in socket
Cartilaginous joints Hold two bones together using cartilage. Slight movement Epiphyseal plates intervertebral disks
Synovial Joints Freely movable joints Contain synovial fluid in the cavity This type of joint is found often in the appendicular skeleton.
Parts of a Synovial Joint Articular cartilage Joint cavity Joint capsule Synovial membrane Bursa Tendon sheath
Types of Synovial Joints Based on the shape of articulating surfaces Plane (gliding) Saddle Hinge Pivot Ball-and Socket Ellipsoid
Types of movement Flexion – moves a body part anterior or ventral Extension – moves a body part posterior or dorsal
Types of movement cont. Abduction – movement away from the midline Adduction – movement toward the midline
Types of movement cont. With the elbow at 90 degrees: Pronation – rotation so that palm is facing down Supination – rotation so that palm is facing up.
Types of movement cont. Eversion – rotation of foot so that plantar surface is lateral Inversion – rotation of foot so that plantar surface is medial
Types of movement cont. Rotation – turning a structure around its long axis. Example – shaking your head no. Example – with your arm flexed, with medial rotation, arm touches the abdomen. With lateral rotation, arm moves away from the body.
Types of movement cont. Protraction – structure glides anteriorly Retraction – structure glides posteriorly Example - mandible
Types of movement cont. Elevation – movement in a superior direction Depression – movement in an inferior direction Example - mandible
Types of movement cont. Excursion – movement of a structure from one side to the other. Example - mandible
Types of movement cont. Opposition – unique to the thumb. This movement is described as bringing the thumb and little finger (or other fingers) together across the palm. Reposition – returns digits to anatomical position
Types of movement cont. Circumduction – only occurs at freely movable joints. Example – movement of the arm so that it swings in a circle with the shoulder forming the apex of a cone.