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Presentation on theme: "Articulations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Articulations

2 Articulations are: Place where two bones come together
May be completely moveable, limited in movement or immovable.

3 Classification Based on degree of movement: Synarthrosis – nonmovable
Amphiarthrosis – slightly movable Diarthrosis – freely moveable

4 Classification Based on structure:
Major type of connective tissue that binds bones together. Presence of a fluid filled joint capsule.

5 Structural Classification
Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial

6 Fibrous Two bones joined by fibrous tissue. Little or no movement
Sutures Syndesmoses Gomphoses

7 sutures Between skull bones “soft spot” in infants. Fontanels

8 Syndesmoses Bones separated by some distance and held together by ligaments. Distal part of radius and ulna

9 Gomphoses Like pegs fitted into a socket. Held in place by ligaments
Tooth in socket

10 Cartilaginous joints Hold two bones together using cartilage.
Slight movement Epiphyseal plates intervertebral disks

11 Synovial Joints Freely movable joints
Contain synovial fluid in the cavity This type of joint is found often in the appendicular skeleton.

12 Parts of a Synovial Joint
Articular cartilage Joint cavity Joint capsule Synovial membrane Bursa Tendon sheath

13 Types of Synovial Joints
Based on the shape of articulating surfaces Plane (gliding) Saddle Hinge Pivot Ball-and Socket Ellipsoid

14 Types of movement Flexion – moves a body part anterior or ventral
Extension – moves a body part posterior or dorsal

15 Types of movement cont. Abduction – movement away from the midline
Adduction – movement toward the midline

16 Types of movement cont. With the elbow at 90 degrees:
Pronation – rotation so that palm is facing down Supination – rotation so that palm is facing up.

17 Types of movement cont. Eversion – rotation of foot so that plantar surface is lateral Inversion – rotation of foot so that plantar surface is medial

18 Types of movement cont. Rotation – turning a structure around its long axis. Example – shaking your head no. Example – with your arm flexed, with medial rotation, arm touches the abdomen. With lateral rotation, arm moves away from the body.

19 Types of movement cont. Protraction – structure glides anteriorly
Retraction – structure glides posteriorly Example - mandible

20 Types of movement cont. Elevation – movement in a superior direction
Depression – movement in an inferior direction Example - mandible

21 Types of movement cont. Excursion – movement of a structure from one side to the other. Example - mandible

22 Types of movement cont. Opposition – unique to the thumb. This movement is described as bringing the thumb and little finger (or other fingers) together across the palm. Reposition – returns digits to anatomical position

23 Types of movement cont. Circumduction – only occurs at freely movable joints. Example – movement of the arm so that it swings in a circle with the shoulder forming the apex of a cone.

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