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Joints Joints are also known as arthroses or articulations Joints can be classified both structurally and functionally Structural Classification  Fibrous.

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Presentation on theme: "Joints Joints are also known as arthroses or articulations Joints can be classified both structurally and functionally Structural Classification  Fibrous."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Joints

3 Joints are also known as arthroses or articulations Joints can be classified both structurally and functionally Structural Classification  Fibrous Joints: Held together by fibrous connective tissue  Cartilaginous Joints: Held together by cartilage  Synovial Joints: Have a synovial cavity, and usually ligaments Functional Classification  Synarthrosis: An immovable joint  Amphiarthrosis: A slightly movable joint  Diarthrosis: A freely movable joint

4 Fibrous Joints Suture (synarthrosis)  Only between bones of the skull Syndesmosis (amphiarthrosis)  For example, interosseous membrane between tibia and fibula Gomphosis (synarthrosis)  Teeth in alveolar processes  Periodontal ligament  Periodontal disease

5 Cartilaginous Joints Synchondrosis (synarthrosis)  Hyaline cartilage  Epiphyseal plate  First rib and manubrium Symphysis (amphiarthrosis)  Ends of bones covered with hyaline cartilage, with fibrous cartilage in between  Pubic symphysis  Manubrium and body of sternum

6 Synovial Joints (Diarthroses) Most common joints in the body Articular Capsule  Outer Fibrous Capsule  Ligaments  Inner Synovial Membrane  Articular Cartilage Synovial Fluid  Nature’s WD-40 Accessory Ligaments Discs or Menisci  Fibrocartilage

7 Angular Movement at Synovial Joints: Flexion & Extension Flexion decreases the angle between articulating bones Extension increases the angle between articulating bones Extension beyond anatomical position is hyperextension

8 Angular Movement at Synovial Joints: Abduction, Adduction, & Circumduction Abduction is movement away from the midline Adduction is movement toward the midline Circumduction is movement of the distal end of a body part in a circle

9 Angular Movement at Synovial Joints: Special Movements Rotation rotates a bone around its own longitudinal axis Inversion and Eversion are movements of the soles medially or laterally Dorsiflexion is standing on your heels Plantar flexion is standing on your toes Supination and pronation move the palm anteriorly or posteriorly

10 Types of Synovial Joints: Ball and Socket

11 Types of Synovial Joints: Hinge

12 Types of Synovial Joints: Pivot

13 Types of Synovial Joints: Ball and Socket A multiaxial joint, allowing movement in all three axes Allows flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, and rotation Shoulder: Head of humerus fits into glenoid cavity Hip: Head of femur fits into acetabulum of hip bone

14 Types of Synovial Joints: Hinge The convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another Produces an angular opening/closing type of movement Knee: Femur and tibia Elbow: Humerus and ulna Ankle: Tibia and talus Interphalangeal joints

15 Types of Synovial Joints: Pivot The rounded surface of one bone articulates with a ring of bone and ligament A monoaxial joint, because it allows rotation only around its own longitudinal axis Atlanto-axial joint  Shake your head “no” Radioulnar joint  Palms move anteriorly and posteriorly  Curve balls

16 Types of Synovial Joints: Other Joints


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