2Articulations Point of contact between bones. Joint- mostly very movable but some are immovable or only allow limited motions.Movable joints allow complex, highly coordinated movements.
3ClassificationsStructural classification- joints are named according to:Type of connective tissuePresence of fluid filled joint capsulesFunctional classification-Synarthroses- immovableAmphiarthroses- slightly movableDiarthroses- freely movable
4Fibrous Joints Synarthroses Bones of joints fit together closely, allowing little or no movement.Syndesmoses- joints in which ligaments connect two bones.Sutures- found only in skull; toothlike projections from adjacent bones interlock with each other.Gomphoses- between root of a tooth and the alveolar process of mandible and maxilla.
5Cartilaginous jointsBones of joints are joined together by hyaline cartilage of fibrocartilage; allow very little motion.
12Knee JointLargest and one of the most complex and most frequently injured joints.Tibiofemoral joint- supported by joint capsule, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons.Permits flexion and extension
13Ankle Joint Hinge type of synovial joint Articulation between lower ends of tibia and fibula and upper part of talus.Joint is “mortise” or wedge-shaped.Lateral malleolus lower than medial.
14Measuring Range of Motion Range of motion (ROM) assessment used to determine extent of joint injury.ROM can be measured actively or passively; results of both by instrument called goniometer.
15Angular MovementChange in the size of angle between articulating bones.Flexion- decreases angle between bones; bends or folds one part on another.Extension- increases angle between two bones.Hyperextension- extension between bones of a joint that is greater than normal.Plantar flexion- increases angle between top of foot and front of leg.
16Angular MovementDorsi flexion- decreases angle between top of foot and front of leg.Abduction- moves part away from median plan of body.Adduction- moves a part toward median plane of body.
17Circular Movements Rotation- pivoting a bone on its own axis. Circumduction- moves a part so that its distal end moves in a circle.Supination- turns the hand palm side-up.Pronation- turns the hand palm side-down.
18Gliding MovementsSimplest of all movements; articular surface of one bone moves over articular surface of another without any angular or circular movement.
19Special Movements Inversion- turning sole of foot inward. Eversion- turning sole outward.Protraction- moves a part forward.Retraction- moves part backward.Elevation- moves part up.Depression- lowers a part.